Induced Travel Bibliography

By Robert Noland, Imperial College London

September 2003


Arnott, Richard and Kenneth Small, 1994, The Economics of Traffic Congestion, American Scientist, 82: 446-455.

Barr, Lawrence C., 2000, Testing for the Significance of Induced Highway Travel Demand in Metropolitan Areas, Transportation Research Record 1706: 1-8.

Boarnet, Marlon, 1997, Highways and Economic Productivity: Interpreting Recent Evidence, Journal of Planning Literature, 11: 476-486.

Boarnet, Marlon, 1998, Spillovers and the Locational Effect of Public Infrastructure, Journal of Regional Science, 38(3): 381-400.

Boarnet, Marlon G. and Andrew F. Haughwot, 2000, Do Highways Matter? Evidence and Policy Implications of Highways’ Influence on Metropolitan Development, The Brookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, Washington, DC.

Boarnet, Marlon G. and Saksith Chalermpong, 2001, New Highways, Urban Development, and Induced Travel, paper no. 01-2996 presented at the 80th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board.

Downs, Anthony, 1992, Stuck in Traffic: Coping with Peak-Hour Traffic Congestion, The Brookings Institution: Washington, DC.

Cairns, Sally, Carmen Hass-Klau and Phil Goodwin, 1998, Traffic Impact of Highway Capacity Reductions: Assessment of the Evidence, Landor Publishing: London.

Cervero, Robert, 2002, Induced Travel Demand: Research Design, Empirical Evidence, and Normative Policies, Journal of Planning Literature, 17(1): 4-19.

Cervero, Robert, 2003, Road Expansion, Urban Growth, and Induced Travel: A Path Analysis, Journal of the American Planning Association, 69(2): 145-163.

Cervero, Robert and Mark Hansen, 2002, Induced Travel Demand and Induced Road Investment: A Simultaneous Equation Analysis, Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 36(3): 469-490.

Chandra, Amitabh and Eric Thompson, 2000, Does Public Infrastructure Affect Economic Activity? Evidence from the Rural Interstate Highway System, Regional Science and Urban Economics, 30: 457-490.

Chu, Xuehao, 2000, Highway Capacity and Areawide Congestion, paper no. 00-1506, presented at the 79th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board.

Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions, 1994, Guidance on Induced Traffic, Guidance Note 1/95, HETA Division, 14th December 1994.

Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions, 1998a, A New Deal for Transport: Better for Everyone, TSO, London.

Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., 1999, Measuring Induced Travel Demand from Roadway Capacity Expansion: An Empirical Analysis of the US Mid-Atlantic Region, Final Report, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.


Fulton, Lewis M., Robert B. Noland, Daniel J. Meszler, and John V. Thomas, 2000, A Statistical Analysis of Induced Travel Effects in the US Mid-Atlantic Region, Journal of Transportation and Statistics, 3(1): 1-14.


Goodwin, Phil B., 1992, A Review of Demand Elasticities with Special Reference to Short and Long Run Effects of Price Changes, Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 26(2): 155-169.


Goodwin, Phil B., 1996, Empirical evidence on induced traffic, a review and synthesis, Transportation, 23: 35-54.


Goodwin, Phil, and Robert B. Noland, in press, Building new roads really does create extra traffic: A response to Prakash et al.”, Applied Economics.


Hansen, Mark, David Gillen, Allison Dobbins, Yuanlin Huang and Mohnish Puvathingal, 1993, The Air Quality Impacts of Urban Highway Capacity Expansion: Traffic Generation and Land Use Change, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Berkeley, ISSN 0192 4095.


Hansen, Mark and Yuanlin Huang, 1997, Road supply and traffic in California urban areas, Transportation Research A, 31: 205-218.


Heanue, Kevin, 1998, Highway Capacity and Induced Travel: Issues, Evidence and Implications, Transportation Research Circular, no. 481, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.


Highways Agency, 1997, Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, Volume 12, Section 2, Part 2: Induced Traffic Appraisal. 



Hills, Peter J., 1996, What is induced traffic?, Transportation, 23: 5-16.


Johnston, Robert and Raju Ceerla, 1996a, The Effects of New High-Occupancy Vehicle Lanes on Travel and Emissions, Transportation Research A, 30(1): 35-50.


Johnston, Robert and Raju Ceerla, 1996b, Travel Modeling with and without Feedback to Trip Distribution, Journal of Transportation Engineering, 122(1): 83-86.


Jorgensen, R.E., 1947, Influence of Expressways in diverting Traffic from Alternate Routes and in Generating New Traffic, HRB Proceedings, 27: 322-330.


Litman, Todd, 2001, Generated Traffic: Implications for Transport Planning, ITE Journal, 71(4): 38-47. Also available at 


Levinson, David M., and Seshasai Kanchi, 2002, Road Capacity and the Allocation of Time, Journal of Transportation and Statistics, 5(1): 25-45.


Lynch, J.T., 1955, Traffic Diversion to Toll Roads, Proceedings 702, American Society of Civil Engineers, June, Washington, DC, pp. 1-27.


Mogridge, M.J.H., D.J. Holden, J. Bird and G.C. Terzis, 1987, The Downs/Thomson Paradox and the Transportation Planning Process, International Journal of Transport Economics, 14(3): 283-311.


Mokhtarian, Patricia L., Francisco J. Samaniego, Robert H. Shumway, and Neil H. Willits, 2002, Revisiting the Notion of Induced Traffic through a Matched-pairs Study, Transportation, 29: 193-220.


Noland, Robert B., 2001, Relationships Between Highway Capacity and Induced Vehicle Travel, Transportation Research A, 35(1): 47-72.


Noland, Robert B., and William A. Cowart, 2000, Analysis of Metropolitan Highway Capacity and the Growth in Vehicle Miles of Travel, Transportation, 27(4): 363-390.


Noland, Robert B., and Lewison L. Lem, 2002, A Review of the Evidence for Induced Travel and Changes in Transportation and Environmental Policy in the United States and the United Kingdom, Transportation Research D, 7(1), 1-26. 


Pells, S.R., 1989, User Response to New Road Capacity: A Review of Published Evidence, Working Paper 283, Institute for Transport Studies, Leeds University.


Rodier, Caroline J., John E. Abraham, and Robert A. Johnston, 2001, Anatomy of Induced Travel: Using an Integrated Land Use and Transportation Model, paper no. 01-2582 presented at the 80th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board.


Standing Advisory Committee on Trunk Road Assessment, 1994, Trunk roads and the generation of traffic, Department of Transport, Standing Advisory Committee on Trunk Road Assessment, London.


Strathman, James G., Kenneth J. Dueker, Thomas Sanchez, Jihong Zhang, and Anne-Elizabeth Riis, 2000, “Analysis of Induced Travel in the 1995 NPTS”, final techical report to the US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Transportation and Air Quality.


Stathopoulos, Fotis G., and Robert B. Noland, in press, Induced Travel and Emissions from Traffic Flow Improvement Projects, Transportation Research Record: the Journal of the Transportation Research Board.


Transportation Research Board, 1995, Expanding metropolitan highways: implications for air quality and energy use, Special report 245, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.


Zahavi, Yacov and James M. Ryan, 1980, Stability of Travel Components over Time, Transportation Research Record, 750: 19-26.


Zahavi, Yacov and Antti Talvitie, 1980, Regularities in Travel Time and Money Expenditures, Transportation Research Record, 750: 13-19.