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Online TDM Encyclopedia
Updated May 2014

Transportation Demand Management (TDM, also called Mobility Management) is a general term for strategies that result in more efficient use of transportation resources. This Encyclopedia is a comprehensive source of information about innovative management solutions to transportation problems. It provides detailed information on dozens of demand management strategies, plus general information on TDM planning and evaluation techniques. It is produced by the Victoria Transport Policy Institute to increase understanding and implementation of TDM.

Contents

Overview
Strategies To Achieve Specific Objectives
Best Strategies For Various Organizations and Stakeholder Groups
TDM Strategies
   Improved Transport Options
   Incentives To Use Alternative Modes and Reduce Driving
   Parking and Land Use Management
   Policy And Institutional Reforms
TDM Programs and Program Support
TDM Planning and Evaluation
Reference Information

Overview

These chapters describe this Encyclopedia and TDM.

About This Encyclopedia Describes the Encyclopedia and how to use it.
Why Manage Transportation? Discusses reasons to apply transportation demand management.
Success Stories Describes successful TDM programs.
Win-Win Transportation Solutions Describes TDM strategies that provide multiple economic, social and environmental benefits.
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Strategies To Achieve Specific Objectives

These chapters describe the best strategies for achieving specific objectives.

Congestion Reduction Strategies for reducing traffic congestion.
Energy Conservation and Emission Reductions Strategies for reducing vehicle energy consumption and pollution emissions.
Health and Fitness Strategies that improve public fitness and health through physical activity.
Improving Equity Strategies that help achieve equity objectives.
Livability Strategies Strategies that improve local environmental quality as experiened by people who live, work and visit in a community.
Parking Solutions Solutions to parking problems.
Rural Community TDM Strategies that can help improve transportation in lower-density, rural areas.
Safety Strategies Strategies for improving traffic safety and public health.
Transportation Affordability Describes TDM strategies that increase transportation affordability.
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Organizations and Stakeholder Groups

 

These chapters identify the best TDM strategies for implementation by various organizations and stakeholder groups.

Individual Actions for Efficient Transport Actions that people can take to increase transport system efficiency.
Business Actions for Efficient Transport Actions that businesses can take to increase transport system efficiency in their roles as employers, developers, building operators and service providers.
Business Association Actions for Efficient Transport Actions that organizations such as chambers of commerce and transportation management associations, can take to increase transport system efficiency.
Community Organization Actions for Efficient Transport Actions that community and non-profit organizations can take to increase transport system efficiency.
Campus Actions for Efficient Transport Actions that campus managers can take to increase transport system efficiency.
Municipal Actions for Efficient Transport Actions that municipal governments can take to increase transport system efficiency.
Regional Government Actions for Efficient Transport Actions that regional governments can take to increase transport system efficiency.
State/Provincial Actions for Efficient Transport Actions that state and provincial governments can take to increase transport system efficiency.
Federal Actions for Efficient Transport Actions that federal governments can take to increase transport system efficiency.
Transportation Agency Actions for Efficient Transport Actions that transportation agencies can take to increase transport system efficiency.
TDM Summary Table This table rates all TDM strategies based on their appropriateness for implementation by various organizations and stakeholder groups.
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TDM Strategies

 

These chapters describe specific TDM strategies. They are divided into major categories according to how they affect travel.

Improved Transport Options

Address Security Concerns Strategies for improving personal security.
Alternative Work Schedules Flextime, Compressed Work Week (CWW), and staggered shifts.
Bus Rapid Transit Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems provide high quality bus service on busy urban corridors.
Cycling Improvements Strategies for improving bicycle transport.
Bike/Transit Integration Ways to integrate bicycling and public transit.
Carsharing Vehicle rental services that substitute for private vehicle ownership.
Flextime Flexible daily work schedules.
Guaranteed Ride Home An occasional subsidized ride home for commuters who use alternative modes.
Individual Actions for Efficient Transport Actions that individuals can take to increase transport system efficiency.
Light Rail Transit Light Rail Transit (LRT) systems provide convenient local transit service on busy urban corridors.
Nonmotorized Planning Planning for walking, cycling, and their variants.
Nonmotorized Facility Management Best practices for managing nonmotorized facilities such as walkways, sidewalks and paths.
Park & Ride Providing convenient parking at transit and rideshare stations.
Pedestrian Improvements Strategies for improving walking conditions.
Pedways Indoor urban walking networks that connect buildings and transportation terminals.
Public Bike Systems Automated bicycle rental systems designed to provide efficient mobility for short, utilitarian urban trips.
Ridesharing Encouraging carpooling and vanpooling.
Shuttle Services Shuttle buses, jitneys and free transit zones.
Small Wheeled Transport Accommodating wheeled luggage, skates, scooters and handcarts.
Transit Station Improvements Describes ways to improve public transit stop and station waiting conditions.
Taxi Service Improvements Strategies for improving taxi services.
Telework (Telecommuting, Distance-Learning, etc.) Use of telecommunications as a substitute for physical travel.
Traffic Calming Roadway designs that reduce vehicle traffic speeds and volumes.
Transit Improvements Strategies for improving public transit services.
Transit Examples Describes successful transit programs.
Universal Design (Barrier Free Planning) Transport systems that accommodate all users, including people with disabilities and other special needs
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Incentives To Use Alternative Modes and Reduce Driving

Carbon Taxes Special taxes based on fuel carbon content intended to encourage energy conservation and climate change emission reductions.
Commuter Financial Incentives Parking cash out, travel allowance, transit and rideshare benefits.
Congestion Pricing Variable road pricing used to reduce peak-period vehicle trips.
Complete Streets Designing Roads For Diverse Modes, Users and Activities
Distance-Based Pricing Vehicle fees and taxes based on a vehicle’s mileage.
Fuel Taxes Increasing fuel taxes to achieve TDM objectives.
HOV (High Occupant Vehicle) Priority Strategies that give transit and rideshare vehicles priority over other traffic.
Multi-Modal Navigation Tools Describes wayfinding resources and other multi-modal navigation tools.
Parking Pricing Charging motorists directly for parking.
Pay-As-You-Drive Insurance Converting vehicle insurance premiums into distance-based fees.
Road Pricing Congestion pricing, value pricing, road tolls and HOT lanes.
Road Space Reallocation Roadway design and management practices that favor efficient modes.
Speed Reductions Strategies to reduce traffic speeds.
Transit Encouragement Strategies for encouraging public transit use.
Vehicle Use Restrictions Limiting vehicle traffic at a particular time and place.
Walking And Cycling Encouragement Strategies for encouraging nonmotorized transportation.
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Parking and Land Use Management

Bicycle Parking Bicycle racks, lockers and changing facilities.
Car-Free Planning Strategies to reduce automobile travel at particular times and places, and create pedestrian oriented streets.
Strong Commercial Centers Creating vibrant downtowns, business districts, urban villages, and other mixed-use activity centers.
Connectivity Creating more connected roadway and path networks.
Land Use Density and Clustering Locating common destinations close together to increase accessibility and transport diversity.
Location Efficient Development Development that maximizes accessibility and affordability.
New Urbanism Accessible, livable community design.
Parking Cost, Pricing and Revenue Calculator Excel spreadsheet calculates parking facility costs, prices and revenue.
Parking Management Strategies for more efficient use of parking.
Parking Management: Strategies, Evaluation and Planning - Comprehensive This report provides comprehensive guidance on parking management (PDF format).
Parking Pricing Charging motorists directly for using parking facilities.
Parking Solutions Comprehensive menu of solutions to parking problems.
Parking Evaluation Guidelines for evaluating parking problems and solutions.
Shared Parking Sharing parking facilities among multiple users.
Smart Growth Land use practices to create more accessibile, efficient and livable communities.
Smart Growth Reforms Policy and planning reforms that encourage more accessible land use development.
Smart Growth Reforms - Comprehensive This report provides detailed information on Smart Growth policy and planning reforms. (PDF Format)
Streetscape Improvements Various ways to improve urban street design.
Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Using transit stations as a catalyst to create more livable communities.
Land Use Impacts on Transport Describes how land use factors such as density, mix and regional accessibility affect travel behavior.
Land Use Impacts on Transport - Comprehensive This comprehensive report provides detailed information on how land use factors affect travel behavior. (PDF Format)
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Policy And Institutional Reforms

Asset Management Policies and programs to preserve the value of assets such as roadways and parking facilities.
Car-Free Planning Strategies to reduce driving at particular times and places.
Change Management Ways to build support for institutional change.
Comprehensive Market Reforms Policy changes that result in more efficient transport pricing.
Context Sensitive Design Flexible design requirements to reflect community values.
Contingency-Based Planning Planning that deals with uncertainly by identifying solutions to potential future problems.
Institutional Reforms Creating organizations that support efficient transport.
Least Cost Planning Creating an unbiased framework for transport planning.
Operations and Management Programs Programs that encourage more efficient use of existing roadway systems.
Prioritizing Transportation Principles for prioritizing transportation activities and investments.
Regulatory Reform Policy changes to encourage transport service competition, innovation and efficiency.
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TDM Programs and Program Support

Access Management Improved coordination between roadway design and land use.
Aviation Transport Management Applying TDM to air transport.
Campus Transport Management Transport management for colleges, universities and other large facilities.
Data Collection and Surveys Data collection for TDM program planning and evaluation.
Commute Trip Reduction Programs that encourage more efficient commuting.
Emergency Response Transport Management Discusses transport management under emergency and disaster conditions.
Freight Transport Management Strategies to improve the efficiency of freight and commercial transport.
Financing Options Describes various ways to fund transport programs that support TDM objectives.
Intelligent Transportation Describes the use of new information technologies to improve transportation system performance and efficiency.
School Transport Management Transport management for schools.
Special Event Transport Management Transportation management for major events, construction projects and emergencies.
Developing Country TDM Implementing transportation demand management in developing regions.
TDM Marketing Information and encouragement programs to promote TDM.
TDM Programs Developing an institutional framework for implementing TDM.
Tourist Transport Management Transportation management for tourist and leisure travel.
Transportation Management Associations (TMA) Member-controlled organizations that provide transportation services in a particular area.
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TDM Planning and Evaluation

These chapters provide information on TDM planning and evaluation techniques.

Accessibility Describes the concept of “accessibility,” how it is evaluated, and ways to improve it.
Evaluating Accessibility - Comprehensive This report discusses the concept of "accessibility," how it can be evaluated and improved, and ways to apply these concepts in transport and land use planning. (PDF Format).
Automobile Dependency Describes transport and land use patterns that increase automobile use and reduce transport options.
Basic Access Describes the concepts of “Basic Access” and “Basic Mobility” and how they can be evaluated.
Comprehensive Transport Planning Planning reforms for more comprehensive and accurate transportation decision-making.
Transportation Demand Discusses Transport Demand, which refers to the amount and type of travel people would choose under specific price and service quality conditions.
Economic Development Impacts Examines how TDM affects economic productivity, employment, business activity and wealth.
Equity Evaluation Discusses concepts of equity and how to evaluate TDM equity impacts.
Equity Evaluation - Comprehensive This comprehensive report discusses concepts of transportation equity and how to evaluate the equity impacts of specific transport planning decisions. (PDF Format)
Evaluating TDM Criticism Evaluates various criticisms of TDM.
Evaluating TDM Describes methods for evaluating the costs and benefits of TDM policies and programs.
Evaluating Transport Options Describes the benefits of having a diverse transportation system, and methods for evaluating the value of specific options.
Health and Fitness Discusses ways to improve public fitness and health by more active transport.
Land Use Evaluation Discusses ways to evaluate the land use impacts of transport planning decisions.
Land Use Evaluation - Comprehensive This comprehensive report examines how transportation decisions affect land use patterns, and the economic, social and environmental impacts that result. (PDF Format)
Multi-Modal Level-Of-Service Indicators Describes Level-of-Service (LOS) rating systems suitable for evaluating the quality of various modes from users' perspective.
Market Principles Discusses market principles and the degree to which TDM strategies reflect these principles.
Measuring Transportation Discusses various ways to measure transport performance.
Modeling Improvements Discusses ways to improve transport models.
Nonmotorized Transport Evaluation Describes techniques for evaluating walking and cycling for planning purposes.
Performance Evaluation Discusses specific performance indicators for measuring progress toward specific objectives.
Planning and Implementation Discusses various issues to consider when planning and implementing Transportation Demand Management programs.
Pricing Evaluation Factors to consider when evaluating TDM strategies that change transport prices.
Pricing Methods Describes and compares methods of collecting road tolls, parking fees and mileage charges.
Rebound Effects Discusses “rebound effects” and their implications for transport planning.
Resilience and Security Explores the concepts of resilience and security and their implications for transport planning.
Safety Impact Evaluation Evaluates how TDM strategies impact traffic safety, security and public health.
Transit Evaluation Describes how to evaluate public transit services.
Evaluating Public Transit Benefits and Costs - Comprehensive This comprehensive report describes how to evaluate the full benefits and costs of public transit services for planning purposes. (PDF Format)
Sustainable Transport and TDM Discusses how TDM can help achieve sustainable transport planning objectives.
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Reference Information

These chapters provide additional technical information about TDM.

Costs of Driving Summarizes estimates of the costs of driving and savings from reduced vehicle travel.
Glossary Defines special words used in TDM planning.
Mobility Management Evaluation Spreadsheet This spreadsheet can be used to evaluate the individual and cumulative impacts of various mobility management strategies on vehicle travel, energy consumption and emissions.
Prestige and Pleasure Discusses the implications of mobility being a prestige good and a pleasurable activity.
TDM Summary Table This table lists the various TDM strategies and rates them for implementation by various stakeholder groups.
Resources Publications and websites for more information on TDM.
Transportation Statistics Describes sources of transportation data throughout the world.
Transportation Costs & Benefits Describes and estimates various transportation costs and benefits.
Transportation Costs and Benefit Analysis - Comprehensive This comprehensive guide, updated in 2009, provides detailed information for quantifying the full costs and benefits of different transport modes.
Transportation Elasticities Describes how changes in transportation prices (fares, fuel, parking fees, tolls, etc.) affect travel behavior.
Transportation Elasticities - Comprehensive This comprehensive report provides detailed information on how transportation price changes affect travel behavior. (PDF Format)
Trip Reduction Tables These tables indicate how parking prices and commuter benefits affect commute travel patterns.
Wit and Humor To add a little fun, jokes and quotes are scattered through the Encyclopedia. This chapter has the beginning of each one. Follow the links to the punchlines.

This Encyclopedia is produced by the Victoria Transport Policy Institute to help improve understanding of Transportation Demand Management. It is an ongoing project. Please send us your comments and suggestions for improvement.

 
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