Walking and Cycling
Evaluating Active Transport Benefits and Costs: Guide to Valuing Walking and Cycling Improvements and Encouragement Programs This report describes methods for evaluating the benefits and costs of active transport (walking, cycling, and their variants). It describes various types of benefits and costs and methods for measuring them. It discusses active transport demands and ways to increase walking and cycling activity.
Completing Sidewalk Networks: Benefits and Costs This study examines the benefits and costs of completing urban sidewalk networks. Most communities have incomplete sidewalk networks. Completing sidewalk networks requires doubling or tripling existing sidewalk investments. These are justified to satisfy ethical and legal requirements, and to achieve various economic, social and environmental goals.
Cool Walkability Planning This report investigates why and how to improve urban walkability in hot climate cities. Shadeways (covered sidewalks) and pedways (enclosed, climate controlled walkways) can significantly improve pedestrian thermal comfort. Although these are more costly than basic sidewalks, they can greatly increase walkability and are far cheaper than motor vehicle costs. Pedway and shadeway networks can often repay their costs through economic savings and increased property values.
Evaluating Active and Micro Mode Emission Reduction Potential This study examines the potential roles that active modes (walking, bicycling and variants such as wheelchairs, strollers, handcarts) and micro modes (e-bikes and e-scooters) can play in reducing climate emissions. This analysis indicates that cost-effective improvements could double or triple active mode travel and provide significant emission reductions. A review of recent emission reduction plans indicates that most undervalue active and micro modes.
Whose Roads? Defining Bicyclists' And Pedestrians' Right To Use Public Roads This report investigates the degree to which bicyclists and pedestrians pay for the transportation facilities (roads, paths and sidewalks) they use. It finds that such facilities are funded primarily by general taxes, which non-drivers fund through general taxes, while they impose much lower costs per mile of travel than motorists.
Evaluating Complete Streets: The Value of Designing Roads For Diverse Modes, Users and Activities 'Complete streets' refers to roads designed to accommodate diverse modes, users and activities including walking, cycling, public transit, automobile, nearby businesses and residents. Such street design helps create more multi-modal transport systems and more livable communities. This report discusses reasons to implement complete streets and how it relates to other planning innovations.
Economic Value of Walkability This article, originally published in the Transportation Research Record, uses standard economic evaluation methods to investigate the value of walking (the activity) and walkability (the quality of walking conditions, including safety, comfort and convenience). Current transportation planning practices tend to undercount and undervalue walking. More comprehensive analysis techniques, described in this report, are likely to justify increased investment and support for walking.
Managing Personal Mobility Devices (PMDs) On Nonmotorized Facilities This report explores the most appropriate way to manage the diverse range of Personal Mobility Devices (bicycles, wheelchairs, scooters, skates, Segways) on nonmotorized facilities. It provides general principles and guidelines for managing sidewalks and paths to accommodate a diverse range of users.
Short and Sweet: Analysis of Shorter Trips Using National Personal Travel Survey Data This report summarizes information on shorter trips, based on 2009 National Household Travel Survey data.
Making Walking and Cycling Safer: Lessons from Europe This paper by John Pucher and Lewis Dijkstra evaluates walking and cycling accident risk in North American and Europe. It finds that these risks are much lower in some European countries, and recommends policies for increasing the safety of nonmotorized travel.
Promoting Safe Walking and Cycling to Improve Public Health: Lessons from The Netherlands and Germany This article by John Pucher and Lewis Dijkstra examines the public health consequences of unsafe and inconvenient walking and cycling conditions in American cities and suggests improvements based on successful policies in The Netherlands and Germany.
Bicycling Renaissance in North America? Recent Trends and Alternative Policies to Promote Bicycling This article by John Pucher, Charles Komanoff, and Paul Schimek discusses policies and planning strategies to increase cycling in North America.
Why Canadians Cycle More Than Americans: A Comparative Analysis Of Bicycling Trends And Policies This article by John Pucher and Ralph Buehler indicates that Canadians cycle about three times more than Americans due to differences in transport and land-use policies. The analysis suggests that it is possible to significantly increase U.S. cycling activity through policy reforms. Posted with authors' permission.
Bicycle Parking Guidelines This document by the Association of Pedestrian and Bicycle Professionals provides current and detailed advice to help select and site bicycle racks for short-term parking. It discusses bicycle rack design features, and how to locate racks so they are convenient and safe to use.
Installing Secure and Convenient Bike Racks
Providing Covered Bike Parking
Bike Parking in Public Areas
Indoor Bicycle Parking
Lockers, Showers and Changing Rooms
This is a set of excellent information sheets produced by Rick Browning for the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality
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