Fair Share Transportation Planning: Estimating Non-Auto Travel Demands and Optimal Infrastructure Investments
Communities have two transportation systems: an automobile-oriented system that includes higher-speed roads and parking facilities, plus a non-auto system that includes sidewalks, paths, lower-speed roads, and public transit services. Planning decisions often involve trade-offs between them. This study evaluates non-auto travel demands, that is, the amount that travelers want to walk, bicycle and use public transit, and describes how planning should serve them. It estimates that in a typical North American community 20% to 40% of travelers cannot, should not or prefer not to drive and will use non-auto modes if they are convenient, comfortable and affordable. This is higher than indicated by commonly-cited statistics, and much higher than the portion of transportation investments currently devoted to non-auto modes. It concludes that to be efficient and equitable, planning should invest in non-auto modes at least as much as their potential mode shares, and more to correct for a century of underinvestment and help achieve strategic goals such as social equity, public health and environmental protection.
Comprehensive Parking Supply, Cost and Pricing Analysis
Parking facilities are a critical part of a transportation system. They impose significant economic, social and environmental costs. This report describes how to estimate the number of parking spaces that exist in an area, their full costs and their optimal pricing. Recent surveys indicate that North American communities typically have more than five parking spaces per vehicle, including many seldom-used government-mandated spaces. Overall, their costs are estimated to average about $1,000 annually per space or $5,000 per vehicle-year, totaling more than a trillion dollars in the U.S. during 2022. For every dollar motorists spend on vehicles somebody spends about a dollar on vehicle parking. Most parking costs are external, resulting in higher taxes, rents, and retail prices, plus lower wages. More efficient parking management could provide larger savings and benefits than previously recognized.
New Mobilities: Smart Planning for Emerging Transportation Technologies (Planner Press 2021)
This new book by Todd Litman critically evaluates twelve emerging transportation technologies and services that may affect our lives and communities. It systematically analyzes their benefits and costs, and how they affect affordability, safety, social equity goals, and contagion risk, and provides guidance for optimiizing their implementation.
* Goodreads New Mobilities page. Information and reader reviews.
* Future of Transportation Is More Multimodal. Review by Diane Jones Allen published in The Dirt, the journal of the American Association of Landscape Architects.
* Which New Mobilities are Good for Your Community? This Greenbiz Magazine, article discusses New Mobilities.
Evaluating Transportation Equity: Guidance for Incorporating Distributional Impacts in Transport Planning
This article, published in the April ITE Journal, discusses why and how transportation practitioners (planners, engineers and policy analysis) can incorporate social equity goals into transportation planning.
Urban Transport Systems: A Transport Australia Society Discussion Paper
This discussion paper published by Engineers Australia highlights problems with the current transport planning paradigm. It is based in part on Todd Litman's research.
The Road Forward: Cost-Effective Policy Measures to Decrease Emissions from Passenger Land Transport
This free 165-page book is a resource for identifying practical, cost-effective passenger transport emission reduction strategies.
Learning from Montreal: An Affordable and Inclusive City (Leçons de Montréal: une ville abordable et inclusive).
Montreal, Canada is beautiful, inclusive and economically successful, but also very affordable, with housing prices 20% to 40% lower than peers cities. This results from local policies that support moderate-priced infill housing development. C'est bon!
“Pneumatic Tube Trains and AVs to the Rescue? Smarter Planning for New Mobility,” in Resilience Matters: Opportunities for Action to Strengthen Communities
Contributors to the Island Press Urban Resilience Project celebrated our collective progress, while highlighting how far we have yet to go in this free, very redable collection of essays.