Transportation Statistics

Transportation Information Sources

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TDM Encyclopedia

Victoria Transport Policy Institute

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Updated 23 March 2016


This chapter describes source of information about vehicle ownership, vehicle use, personal and freight transport and traffic crashes.

 

Contents

Introduction. 1

International 4

Europe. 14

Asia. 17

United States. 19

Canada. 24

Britain. 25

Other Countries. 26

Examples and Case Studies. 30

References And Resources For More Information. 31

 

 

Introduction

Accurate travel information is important for evaluating Transportation Demand Management. In recent years transportation statistical collection practices have improved and an increasing portion of this data has become available through the Internet. This chapter describes various sources of transportation statistics

 

The quality of transportation statistics varies significantly. Data quality refers to the following features:

 

·         Comprehensiveness. An adequate range of statistics should be collected to allow various types of analysis. Data should be disaggregated by geographic area, mode and vehicle type and demographic group.

 

·         Consistency. The range of statistics, their definitions and collection methodologies should be suitably consistent between different jurisdictions, modes and time periods.

 

·         Frequency. Data should be collected regularly: quarterly, annually, or ever several years, depending on type.

 

·         Accuracy. The methods used to collect statistics must be suitably accurate.

 

·         Transparency. The methods used to collect statistics must be accessible for review.

 

·         Availability. Statistics should be readily available to users. As much as possible, data sets should be available free on the Internet in spreadsheet or database format.

 

 

Some experts have proposed or established standards for transportation statistics (Litman 2007; May, et al. 2008). A good model for high quality transportation information are the annual Highway Statistics (www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim) reports which contain more than three decades worth of standardized data supplied annually by states and regional government agencies. These data are available free in spreadsheet format. The results are extremely useful for planning, evaluation and research. No other set of transportation statistics is as comprehensive, frequent, consistent or available.

 

Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom

The terms, data, information, knowledge and wisdom are sometimes used interchangeably, but they differ in their level of abstraction and therefore their transferability and usefulness in decision-making.

 

  • Data (also called statistics) refers to measurements that are least abstract, organized and transferable. These are reported without context, such as the number of vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT), traffic speeds, and traffic fatalities.

 

  • Information is more abstract, organized and transferable, and therefore suitable for research purposes, such as statistical analysis of the relationships between VMT, traffic speeds and traffic fatalities.

 

  • Knowledge is more abstract, organized and transferable, and therefore suitable for decision-making, such as a functional model that can predict how specific transport policy and planning decisions will affect traffic accident risk.

 

  • Wisdom is the most abstract level of understanding because it is comprehensive about context and values, such as a decision-makers ability to determine what transport policy and planning decisions are optimal, balancing traffic accident risk along with other planning objectives, and reflecting a community’s needs and values.

 

These are connected and overlapping concepts. Wisdom requires knowledge, which requires information, which requires data. High quality data and analysis are essential for good decision-making.

 

 

The U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) has established its own information quality standards and participates with other agencies to improve statistical information quality (BTS 2008, Transportation Statistics Annual Report, Box B). The following documents describe these efforts:

 

·         BTS Statistical Standards Manual—covers all aspects of Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA) and the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) statistical practices (www.bts.gov/programs/statistical_policy_and_research/bts_statistical_standards_manual/index.html).

 

·         Guide to Good Statistical Practice in the Transportation Field—includes Department of Transportation (USDOT) guidelines for statistical information and additional BTS guidance for good statistical practice (www.bts.gov/publications/guide_to_good_statistical_practice_in_the_transportation_field).

 

·         Guidelines for Ensuring and Maximizing the Quality, Objectivity, Utility, and Integrity of Information Disseminated by Federal Agencies—Federal Register Notice, Vol. 67, No. 36, Feb. 22, 2002, Part IX – Office of Management and Budget (www.bts.gov/publications/federal_register_notice/pdf/volume_67_number_36.pdf).

 

·         Guidelines of the Federal Statistical Organizations—an approach to guidelines for statistical information adopted by the Interagency Council on Statistical Policy (ICSP): (www.bts.gov/publications/federal_register_notice/pdf/volume_67_number_107.pdf).

 

·         DOT Report for Implementing OMB’s Information Dissemination Quality Guidelines —is the USDOT implementation of the Office of Management and Budget’s information quality guidelines and correction procedures. The DOT guidelines permit its agencies to issue their own guidelines, if these guidelines are consistent with the overall DOT guidelines: (http://docketsinfo.dot.gov/ombfi nal092502.pdf).

 

·         Standards and Guidelines for Statistical Surveys—adopted September 2006: (www.whitehouse.gov/omb/inforeg/statpolicy/standards_stat_surveys.pdf).

 

·         Title V—Confidential Information Protection and Statistical Efficiency Act of 2002—effective Dec.17, 2002 (www.whitehouse.gov/omb/inforeg/cipsea/cipsea_statute.pdf).

 

·         OMB (2008), Statistical Policy Directive No. 4: Release and Dissemination of Statistical Products Produced by Federal Statistical Agencies, Office of Management and Budget (www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/2008/030708_directive-4.pdf).

 

 

Statistics Tips and Tricks

Here are common pitfalls when using transportation statistics, and ways to avoid them.

 

Definitions

Different data sets may use different definitions that should be considered when making comparisons. For example, transportation statistics may include total motor vehicles, total roadway vehicles (including automobiles and trucks), total private vehicles, total automobiles (which generally includes vans, light trucks and sport utility vehicles), or cars. Similarly, there are variations in how crash injuries and fatalities are defined, the types of pollution emissions considered, and which public transport modes are considered. Check definitions to be sure that you understand what they include.

 

Missing Walking Trips

Transportation surveys often undercount walking trips because they ignore short trips, non-commute trips, travel by children, or non-motorized links of automobile and transit trips. Always investigate the definitions of trips and the degree to which certain modes (particularly walking trips) may be undercounted.

 

Percentages Versus Percentage Points

There is often confusion between changes measured as percentages and percentage points. For example, below is a typical before-and-after shift of a TDM program. These changes can either be described as a doubling in nonmotorized travel, a 20% increase in transit trips, a 47% increase in alternative mode trips (7/15), an 8% reduction in motorized (7/85), or as a 7-point mode shift. All are correct statements, but they imply different magnitude of impacts and success.

 

Mode                         Before                          After

Nonmotorized            5%                               10%

Transit                        10%                             12%

Motorized                  85%                              78%

 

Always clearly distinguish between changes percentage and percentage points.

 

Reference Units

Reference units are measurement units normalized to help people understand and compare impacts such as per capita, per mile, per trip, per vehicle and per dollar. How these units are used and defined can affect analysis results. For example, measuring impacts per unit of travel (such as crash rates per 100 million vehicle-miles) implies that increased per capita vehicle mileage reduces risks. For this reason, most impacts, such as crashes, energy consumption and pollution emissions, should be measured per capita rather than per mile or kilometer of travel.

 

 

International

 

CROSS NATIONAL TIME SERIES: A Database of Social, Economic, and Political Data (www.databanks.sitehosting.net)  

The Cross-National Time-Series Data Archive (CNTS) offers a comprehensive listing of international and national country data facts, going back to 1815. Variables and data may be accessed in the following areas: Area & Population, Industrial, & Labor Force, Size of Military, National Government Revenue & Expenditure, School Enrollment, Domestic Conflict Event Data, International Status Indicators, National Income & Currency, Telegraph & Telephone Data, Election Data, Legislative Process, Percent Annual Change Data, Trade Data, Energy Production & Consumption, Literacy, Physician Data, Urbanization, Highway vehicles, Mail Flow Data, Political Data, Industrial Production, Media (Radio, TV, Newspaper, Books) and Railroad Data.

 

 

Typological Analysis of Cities (JICA 2011)

A major study for the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) developed a database of various development and demographic factors for 398 urban regions with more than a million residents. The cities are characterized by size, density, motor vehicle ownership, mode share (automobile versus transit), Gross Domestic Product (GDP), growth rates, public transit service (rail and BRT), and types of urban transportation problems (excessive traffic congestion, inadequate public transit service provision, transit crowding, fares (financial costs), accident risk, excessive air pollution, and unfairness. Extensive use of graphs to illustrate relationships. Identifies various conditions that support high quality public transit services. Summarizes experiences developing urban transit systems in various developing country cities.

 

CitiesACT (www.citiesact.org)

Cities Act is an online database providing access to Climate change, Air Quality, Transport and energy data and indicators for Asian cities and countries. It is maintained by the Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities (CAI-Asia).Data are compiled from international and national statistical sources, national and local statistical yearbooks, responses to survey questionnaires, secondary data sent by CAI-Asia country networks and partners, and personal correspondence with national ministries, among others. CitiesACT also contains air pollution and GHG emissions indicators for transport and energy generated by CAI-Asia. Popular CAI-Asia data charts, graphs and maps can also be accessed through the website.

 

Data include:

 

Air Quality and Climate Change

·         Air quality standards

·         Air quality data

·         Information on monitoring Stations

 

Transport

·         Emissions standards

o   New vehicle emission standards (light duty)

o   Heavy duty diesel emission standards

o   Motorcycle emission standards

o   Emission standards for in-use vehicles

·         Fuel quality standards

·         Fuel economy standards

·         Total emissions from road transport

·         Road transport emissions per capita, per GDP

·         Road transport emissions per passenger km and freight

·         Road transport emissions per vehicle type, vehicle-fuel type

·         Motorization Index

·         Transport Statistics, including

o   Fuel consumption of road transport sector

o   Vehicle registration, production, imports, sales and production

o   Vehicle kilometer travelled

o   Passenger-km and freight tons-km statistics

o   Transport mode split

 

Energy

·         Total emissions from electricity generation

o   Emissions by source type (generation)

o   Emissions per kWh (generation)

o   Emissions per end-use sector (consumption)

o   Emissions per GDP (consumption)

o   Emissions per capita (consumption)

·         Energy Statistics, including

o   Electricity Generation by source type

o   Electricity Consumption by end-use sector

o   Heat rate (by source type)

o   Carbon emission factor (by source type)

o   Percent of carbon oxidized (by source type)

o   Calorific value (by source type)

o   Particulate matter combustion emission factors (by source type)

o   Sulfur content of fuel (by source type)

o   Sulfur retention in ash (by source type)

o   Net calorific value (by source type)

 

General information provided for country/city

·         Capital, Region

·         Population (Total, Percent Urban Population, Population with access to electricity)

·         GDP

·         Number and list of mega-cities in a country

 

 

Global Transport Intelligence Initiative (www.slocat.net/key-slocat-prog/466)

The Global Transport Intelligence (GTI) initiative is a coordinated program of international organizations involved in the collection, analysis and dissemination of data on transport in the developing countries. It currently consists of: the Partnership on Sustainable Low Carbon Transport (SLoCaT), the Asian Development Bank; Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities; International Association of Public Transport, Inter-American Development Bank; International Energy Agency; International Road Federation; International Transport Forum; German Development Cooperation; Korean Transport Institute; Latin American Development Bank; and the United Nations Department for Economic and Social Affairs. An initial planning meeting was conducted on May 2011 in Paris hosted by the International Energy Agency.

 

 

International Transport Forum (www.internationaltransportforum.org)

The International Transport Forum is an inter-governmental organisation within the OECD family, previously the European Conference of Ministers of Transport (ECMT). Key figures from government and politics, business and industry, research and civil society meet annually to debate a transport topic of worldwide strategic importance. The forum maintains key statistics on transport infrastructure, vehicles, and personal and freight transport activity. The statistics section (www.internationaltransportforum.org/statistics/statistics.html) provides access to various transportation data sources.

 

 

G-7 Transportation Highlights (www.bts.gov/itt/G7HighlightsNov99/G-7book.pdf)

The G-7 Transportation Highlights, published by the U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics, is a summary statistical report on transportation that covers the United States, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and Japan--the Group of Seven (G-7) countries. The report covers the extent and use of the seven countries' transportation networks, and selected statistics on trade and transportation, safety, and energy and environment.

 

 

International Road Federation (www.irfnet.org)

The IRF publishes World Road Statistics, a global compilation of road and vehicle statistics compiled from official sources within national statistics offices and national road administrations in more than 200 countries. It includes the following sections:

  1. Country profiles
  2. Road Networks
  3. Road Traffic
  4. Multimodal Traffic Comparisons
  5. Vehicles in Use
  6. Road Accidents
  7. Production, Imports, First Registrations and Exports of Motor Vehicles
  8. Road Expenditures
  9. Energy

 

 

Income and Expenditures (www.worldsalaries.org)

World Salaries provides international comparison of average salary for various professions and an international comparison of average personal income & expenditure, including transportation expenditures.

 

 

iRAP International Transport Knowledgebase (http://eurorap.org/knowledge-base)

This website provides transport-related information for major economies in Europe, Asia and Latin America, including demographics and transport infrastructure, traffic and travel, vehicle stocks, safety, and energy and emissions. Visitors to the site can browse the information presented, search for specific data by country and topic, and analyze the complete data set by building their own tables and graphs online.

 

 

Key Transport Statistics of World Cities (Pan 2013)

This article provides key transport statistics, including central city and regional population density; public transit supply, ridership and fares; road density; and motor vehicle ownership are provided for 20 major cities including some that are traditionally

renowned for their advanced transport development (e.g., London, New York, Hong Kong and Tokyo) and some emerging mega cities (e.g., Seoul, Shanghai and Beijing). The information was collected for government agency websites and other sources. This is one of a series of articles published in the journal JOURNEYS that provide data suitable for comparative analysis.

 

 

Millennium Cities and Mobility In Cities Database

The International Association of Public Transport (www.uitp.com) has compiled the Millennium Cities Database for Sustainable Transport and the Mobility In Cities Database (www.uitp.org/publications/MCD2-order). In total, over 200 indicators have been collected for each of the 100 cities for various years. The collected data include:

·               Population.

·               The economy and the urban structure.

·               The number of road vehicles.

·               The road network.

·               Parking.

·               Public transport networks (offer, usage and cost).

·               Individual mobility and choice of transport mode.

·               Transport system efficiency and environmental impact (duration and cost of transport, energy consumption, accidents, pollution, etc.)

 

 

U.N. Global Urban Indicators Database (http://ww2.unhabitat.org/programmes/guo)

The Global Urban Indicators Database maintained by the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) provides statistical information on cities throughout the world, including transportation and land use data.

 

The Global Urban Observatory (ww2.unhabitat.org/programmes/guo)

The UN Global Urban Observatory was established by UN-HABITAT to provide information for monitoring and evaluating global urban conditions and trends. It includes a variety of demographic and economic data, including some transport data for cities around the world.

 

Cooperation For Urban Mobility In The Developing World (www.codatu.org)

CODATU (Cooperation for urban mobility in the developing world) is an international association that promotes scientific exchanges, technical, economic and social concerning urban transportation. It’s publications provide information on public transport system performance and best practices.

 

 

NationMaster (www.nationmaster.com)

NationMaster is a compilation of data from such sources as the CIA World Factbook, UN, and OECD categorized by subject and country. It can be used to compare countries and generate maps and graphs. The Transport section (www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Transport) includes information on air, road and freight infrastructure, investments, vehicles and activities. However, the quality of information is unreliable (for example, “motor vehicles per capita” currently only reports car ownership, excluding vans, sport utility vehicles and light trucks).

 

 

U.S. Census Bureau International Data Base (www.census.gov/ipc/www/idbsprd.html)

This extensive database includes information on population, fertility, birth, deaths, education and employment, by age, gender and race, for different years and countries throughout the world.

 

 

North American Transportation Statistics On-Line Database (http://nats.sct.gob.mx/sys/index.jsp?i=3).

This website presents information on transportation and transportation-related activities among Canada, the United States and Mexico. This database, presented in French, English, and Spanish, covers twelve thematic areas, including transportation and the economy, transportation safety, transportation’s impact on energy and the environment, passenger and freight activity, and transportation and trade. It updates data first collected in the 1996 report North American Transportation in Figures (www.bts.gov/itt/natf.html). The Database is produced by the North American Transportation Statistics working group within the North American Transportation Statistics Interchange, a trilateral initiative among the transportation and statistical agencies of Canada, the United States and Mexico. 

 

 

OECD Transport Statistics (www.oecd.org)

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development produces a variety of transportation statistics, including the OECD Factbook (www.sourceoecd.org/factbook), which provides information on passenger transport, freight transport and road accidents for 30 countries (www.oecd.org/document/62/0,2340,en_2825_497139_2345918_1_1_1_1,00.html), including transportation statistics in spreadsheet format (http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/353365538624), and the International Road Traffic and Accident Database (www.oecd.org/document/53/0,2340,en_2649_34351_2002165_1_1_1_1,00.html), which provides comprehensive information on vehicle crashes. The OECD Online Information Services (OLISnet) is a program to improve and broaden information flows among OECD countries (www.oecd.org/statsportal/0,2639,en_2825_293564_1_1_1_1_1,00.html), including a section on transportation statistics (www.oecd.org/topicstatsportal/0,2647,en_2825_497139_1_1_1_1_1,00.html).

 

The Victoria Transport Policy Institute has assembled this information into the OECD Country Data Summary Spreadsheet, available at www.vtpi.org/OECD2006.xls. Table 1 illustrates some information from this spreadsheet.

 

Table 1            Fuel Price, Consumption, Travel And Risk (OECD 2006; Metschies 2005)

 

Fuel Prices

Annual Transport Energy Use

Annual Vehicle Travel

Road Fatalities

 

US Cents Per Liter

Per Capita Tonnes Petrol Equivalent

Kms/Cap.

Per 100,000 Population

 

 

To U.S.

 

To U.S.

 

To U.S.

 

To U.S.

Australia

$0.85

157%

 1.47

67%

NA

 

8.6

59%

Austria

$1.32

244%

 0.96

44%

NA

 

10.8

74%

Belgium

$1.50

278%

 1.00

46%

11,885

51%

10.9

75%

Canada

$0.68

126%

 1.72

79%

15,169

66%

8.7

60%

Czech Republic

$1.08

200%

 0.60

27%

7,516

33%

13.6

93%

Denmark

$1.51

280%

 0.94

43%

13,058

57%

7.4

51%

France

$1.54

285%

 0.91

42%

12,977

56%

9.2

63%

Finland

$1.54

285%

 0.88

40%

12,865

56%

7.2

49%

Germany

$1.46

270%

 0.78

36%

10,186

44%

7.1

49%

Greece

$1.14

211%

 0.73

33%

3,812

17%

13.5

93%

Hungary

$1.30

241%

 0.38

18%

6,428

28%

12.9

89%

Iceland

$1.64

304%

 1.14

52%

16,217

70%

7.9

55%

Ireland

$1.29

239%

 1.14

52%

NA

 

9.5

66%

Italy

$1.53

283%

 0.77

35%

15,453

67%

10.3

71%

Japan

$1.26

233%

 0.73

34%

6,602

29%

7.5

52%

Korea

$1.35

250%

 0.72

33%

NA

 

14.7

101%

Netherlands

$1.62

300%

 0.93

43%

9,961

43%

4.9

34%

New Zealand

$0.77

143%

 1.38

63%

NA

 

9.9

68%

Norway

$1.61

298%

 1.05

48%

12,301

53%

5.6

39%

Poland

$1.20

222%

 0.30

14%

5,256

23%

15.0

103%

Portugal

$1.38

256%

 0.70

32%

9,180

40%

12.4

85%

Russian Fed.

$0.55

102%

  NA

  

-

0%

24.1

166%

Slovak Republic

$1.17

217%

 0.41

19%

6,128

27%

11.3

78%

Spain

$1.21

224%

 0.90

41%

9,270

40%

11.5

79%

Sweden

$1.51

280%

 0.94

43%

11,619

50%

5.3

37%

Switzerland

$1.29

239%

 0.96

44%

12,409

54%

6.9

48%

Turkey

$1.44

267%

 0.19

9%

2,305

10%

8.0

55%

United Kingdom

$1.56

289%

 0.90

41%

11,614

50%

5.7

39%

United States

$0.54

100%

 2.18

100%

23,095

100%

14.5

100%

This table compares transportation fuel prices, energy consumption, vehicle travel and traffic fatalities of various countries. Italic values show each factor relative to those in the U.S.

 

 

World Health Organization Statistical Information System (www.who.int/whosis)

The World Health Organization Statistical Information System (WHOSIS) provides 70 core health statistics for 193 WHO Member States. It can be searched by major categories, or through user-defined tables. The data are also published annually in the World Health Statistics Report released in May.

 

 

World Bank (www.worldbank.org)

The World Bank Development Indicators provides some information on transportation (road networks, vehicle ownership, freight transport) as available for all countries in the world. It also includes other data on population and productivity in the World Development Indicators (www.worldbank.org/data/wdi2003/index.htm) and various specialized databases (http://econ.worldbank.org/resource.php?type=18).

 

 

International Vehicle Travel Comparison (Millard-Ball and Schipper 2010)

The study, Are We Reaching A Plateau Or “Peak” Travel? summarizes vehicle ownership, travel and fuel economy trends in six industrialized countries (Australia, Canada, Japan, Sweden, the U.K. and the U.S.).

 

 

Worldwide Transportation Directory (www.bts.gov/itt/wtd

The Worldwide Transportation Directory is a compilation of transportation contact points in over 180 countries. Data are organized by regional area and are restricted primarily to government and quasi-government agencies and organizations. Contact information includes country, government transportation agencies and quasi-government agencies, contact person, telephone numbers, and addresses.

 

 

CoMET (www.comet-metros.org) and NOVA (www.nova-metros.org)

CoMET and NOVA are railway benchmarking programs through which members share information for comparisons and analysis. The Railway Technology Strategy Centre (RTSC), at Imperial College London, acts as the administrator, facilitates the process and provides the research resources. CoMET (the Community of Metros) consists of twelve of the world’s largest metropolitan railways (metros): Berlin BVG, Hong Kong MTR, London Underground Ltd, Metro de Madrid, Mexico City STC, Moscow MoM, Paris Metro (RATP), Paris RER, New York City Transit, Metro de Santiago, São Paulo MSP and Shanghai SMOC. NOVA consists of fifteen medium sized metro systems from around the world - Bangkok, Barcelona, Buenos Aires, Delhi, Glasgow, Lisbon, Milan, Montréal, Naples, Newcastle, Rio de Janeiro, Singapore, Taipei, Toronto and Sydney.

 

 

International Energy Agency (www.iea.org)

The International Energy Agency provides information on international energy supply, demand, prices and conservation opportunities.

 

 

International Fuel Prices (www.internationalfuelprices.com)

The report, International Fuel Prices 2005 provides information on gasoline and diesel prices of 172 countries, including time series of prices from 1991 – 2004, fuel tax rates, fuel tax revenue (as a portion of total national tax revenue), fuel purchasing power (relative to the cost of chicken eggs), plus estimates of total vehicle ownership, annual vehicle travel and fuel consumption, fuel subsidies, and fuel contraband. Table 2 shows some of the report price data.

 

Table 2            Selected Country Gasoline Prices (www.international-fuel-prices.com)

Country

2004 Super Gasoline Price Per Liter

Iraq

$0.03

Venezuela

$0.04

Saudi Arabia

$0.24

Kuwait

$0.24

Indonesia

$0.27

Egypt

$0.28

Malaysia

$0.37

China

$0.48

Philippines

$0.52

United States

$0.54

Mexico

$0.59

Canada

$0.68

New Zealand

$0.77

South Africa

$0.81

Brazil

$0.84

Australia

$0.85

Greece

$1.14

Poland

$1.20

Spain

$1.21

Japan

$1.21

South Korea

$1.35

Turkey

$1.44

Sweden

$1.51

Hong Kong

$1.54

United Kingdom

$1.56

Netherlands

$1.62

This table indicates average 2004 gasoline retail prices in some of the 172 countries listed in the 2005 International Fuel Prices report. This report also provides data on diesel prices, taxes, and other information.

 

 

Department of Energy (www.doe.gov)

The U.S. DOE’s Energy Information Administration’s International Fact Sheets (www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/fact.html) provide information on energy supply, demand, prices and alternative fuels in various parts of the world. The The International Energy Outlook (www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo) provides information on energy production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices.

 

 

Asian Development Bank (www.adb.org)

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) produces the Urban Indicators for Managing Cities: Cities Data Book (www.adb.org/Documents/Books/Cities_Data_Book/default.asp) which provides demographic, economic and infrastructure data on various Asian cities. Tables 3 and 4 indicate examples of data from this book.

 

Table 3            Mode Split In Selected Asian Cities (ADB 2001)

 

Private Automobile

Train, Tram, Light Rail

Bus

Motorcycle or Three-Wheeler

Bicycle, including pedi-cab

Walking

Others, including Boat, Taxi, Animal, etc.

Bangalore

11%

7%

38%

18%

11%

16%

0%

Bishkek

10%

60%

20%

2%

1%

7%

0%

Cebu

4%

0%

60%

0%

0%

0%

36%

Colombo

4%

4%

71%

13%

0%

6%

2%

Dhaka

3%

0%

9%

3%

1%

60%

24%

Hanoi

NAV

NAV

9%

59%

29%

4%

0%

Hohhot

2%

0%

2%

4%

91%

1%

0%

Hong Kong

8%

34%

53%

0%

0%

0%

5%

Kathmandu

NAV

NAV

4%

33%

0%

0%

63%

Lahore

18%

NAV

15%

19%

19%

17%

12%

Mandaluyong

22%

1%

7%

17%

3%

13%

37%

Medan

5%

NAV

86%

8%

0%

0%

0%

Melbourne

55%

40%

2%

1%

1%

1%

1%

Naga

19%

0%

58%

19%

4%

0%

0%

Phnom Penh

10%

0%

15%

60%

2%

3%

10%

Seoul

20%

32%

29%

NAV

NAV

NAV

19%

Bangalore

11%

7%

38%

18%

11%

16%

0%

Bishkek

10%

60%

20%

2%

1%

7%

0%

NAV – not available

 

Table 4            Transport Indicators In Selected Asian Cities (ADB 2001)

 

Median Travel Time

Road Infrastructure

Expenditures

Road Congestion

Auto Ownership

Cost Recovery Fees

Commercial Ships

Aviation – National

Aviation – Internat.

 

Minutes

Annual US$ Per Capita

%

Per 1,000 residents

Annual US$ Per Capita

Per Month

Flights Per Month

Flights Per Month

Bangalore

40

3.17

100

231

102

0

690

52

Bishkek

45

0.94

70

109

1

0

386

269

Cebu

NAV

NAV

NAV

25

NAV

68,823

2,900

19

Colombo

35

11.88

NAV

7

NAV

NAV

NAV

NAV

Dhaka

50

NAV

NAV

2

NAV

NAV

NAV

NAV

Hanoi

25

4.42

NAV

NAV

57

0

2,645

245

Hohhot

30

9.80

NAV

1

NAV

0

155

8

Hong

Kong

47

99.00

47

106

107

19,278

0

Kathmandu

35

1.93

NAV

279

60

0

1,905

395

Lahore

40

2.22

3

240

100

0

977

244

Mandaluyong

90

3.49

1

248

NAV

2,495

1,170

4,110

Medan

30

1.38

15-25

48

7

4,487

567

87

Melbourne

20

106.00

0

341

NAV

3,050

10,064

1,449

Naga

30

23.65

NAV

87

NAV

0

76

NAP

Phnom

Penh

25

0.83

NAV

8

NAV

2,265

NAV

Seoul

44

171.22

NAV

290

NAV

NAP

6,452

8,311

Suva

35

NAV

NAV

115

NAV

42

240

28

Ulaanbaatar

25

1.69

0

33

79

0

121

42

NAV – not available

 

 

A study by Bassett, et al. (2008) uses various data sources to calculate overall travel (mileage) and mode split (percentage of trips) by walking, cycling and public transit for various countries.

 

Table 5            Personal Travel Mode Split of Various Countries (Bassett, et al. 2008)

Country

Year

Transit

Bike

Walk

Obesity Rates*

Latvia

2003

32%

5%

30%

(13.7%)

Switzerland

2005

12%

5%

45%

8%

Netherlands

2006

5%

25%

22%

8.1% (11.2%)

Spain

2000

12%

 

35%

12.8%

Sweden

2006

11%

9%

23%

9.4%

Austria

2005

17%

4%

21%

 

Germany

2002

8%

9%

23%

12.1%

Finland

2005

8%

9%

22%

13.3%

Denmark

2003

8%

15%

16%

12.2%

Norway

2001

10%

4%

22%

14.3%

UK

2006

9%

2%

24%

24%

France

1994

8%

3%

19%

11%

Belgium

1999

6%

8%

16%

 

Ireland

2006

11%

2%

13%

18%

Canada

2001

11%

1%

7%

15.2 (22.7%)

Australia

2006

8%

1%

5%

16.2% (20.8%*)

USA

2001

2%

1%

9%

34.3%

* Combined male and female obesity prevalence based on Body Mass Index (BMI). Values in parenthesis are from national health examination surveys. Other values are based on self-reported weight and height.

 

 

Europe

 

EU Mobility and Transport (http://ec.europa.eu/transport)

This website provides statistical information and research reports on transportation facilities, funding, activity and impacts for European Union countries. The EU Transport Scorecard (http://ec.europa.eu/transport/facts-fundings/scoreboard) provides information for comparing and evaluating transport system performance for each country.

 

 

Statistics on European Cities (http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Statistics_on_European_cities)

This website provides current and projected information on European cities’ demographic and economic trends, transport activity and tourism.

 

 

TEMS - The EPOMM Modal Split Tool (www.epomm.eu/tems/about_tems.phtml)

TEMS is collected standardized modal share data for all European cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants (there are about 450 such cities). Data of smaller cities and of non-European cities are accepted but are not the focus.

 

 

UNECU (2008), Annual Bulletin Of Transport Statistics For Europe And North America, Economic Commission For Europe (www.unece.org); at www.unece.org/trans/main/wp6/pdfdocs/ABTS2008.pdf; data spreadsheets at www.unece.org/trans/main/wp6/pdfdocs/ABTS2008_tables.zip. This report provides data on transport activity; transport equipment and transport infrastructure by mode (rail, road, inland waterway, maritime, intermodal and oil pipeline). This publication , as well as the Bulletin on Statistics of Road Traffic Accidents in Europe and North America, are produced by the Working Party on Transport Statistics, which administers an annual collection of data from member countries and aims to harmonize transport statistics at the international level. Additional economic, social and environmental statistics at http://w3.unece.org/pxweb/Dialog.

 

 

European Mode Split Database (http://epomm.eu/tems)

The European Platform on Mobility Management (EPOMM) has launched the Online Modal Split Database which provides information from more than 250 cities across Europe. Users can select a city from the map or compare a group of cities using the search options in the menu. The database is rapidly expanding, as users can easily upload (http://epomm.eu/tems/upload) city data.

 

 

Eurostat (www.europa.eu.int)

Eurostat provides statistical information on European countries, including vehicle ownership, personal and freight travel, population and income. The report, Passenger Mobility in Europe (http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-SF-07-087/EN/KS-SF-07-087-EN.PDF) summarizes and compared passenger transport data from twenty European countries. Table 6 presents three main indicators for measuring

passenger mobility. The Transport Theme page (http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/pls/portal/url/page/SHARED/PER_TRANSP) includes statistics and recent reports.

 

Table 6            Passenger Mobility in Europe (Eurostat, Passenger Mobility in Europe)

Country

Average number of trips/person/day

Average travel distance

(km)/person/day

Average travel time

(minutes)/person/day

Belgium (BE)

3.0

:

:

Czech Republic (CZ)

:

21.9

:

Denmark (DK)

3.0

37.3

:

Germany (DE)

3.3

36.9

80.0

Estonia (EE)

:

37.3

:

Spain (ES)

1.8

:

44.4

France (FR)

2.9

35.3

58.2

Latvia (LV)

1.9

8.7

13.0

Netherlands (NL)

3.1

31.9

59.9

Austria (AT)

3.0

28.1

68.8

Finland (FI)

2.9

41.8

70.7

Sweden (SE)

2.7

44.1

62.6

United Kingdom (UK)

2.9

31.8

63.3

Switzerland (CH)

3.6

37.1

84.5

Norway (NO)

3.3

37.9

68.2

 

 

ADONIS (www.vejdirektoratet.dk/dokument.asp?page=document&objno=7134)

The ADONIS report, Analysis And Development Of New Insight Into Substitution Of Short Car Trips By Cycling And Walking, includes information on travel mode split in various European cities, as summarized in Table 7.

 

Table 7            Mode Split In Selected European Cities (ADONIS 1998)

City

Foot and Cycle

Public Transport

Car

Inhabitants

Amsterdam (NL)

47 %

16 %

34 %

718,000

Groningen (NL)

58 %

6 %

36 %

170,000

Delf (NL)

49 %

7 %

40 %

93,000

Copenhague (DK)

47 %

20 %

33 %

562,000

Arhus (DK)

32 %

15 %

51 %

280,000

Odense (DK)

34 %

8 %

57 %

1,983,000

Barcelona (Spain)

32 %

39 %

29 %

1,643,000

L’Hospitalet (Spain)

35 %

36 %

28 %

273,000

Mataro (Spain)

48 %

8 %

43 %

102,000

Vitoria (Spain)

66 %

16 %

17 %

215,000

Brussels (BE)

10 %

26 %

54 %

952,000

Gent (BE)

17 %

17 %

56 %

226,000

Brujas (BE)

27 %

11 %

53 %

116,000

This table summarizes mode split in various European cities.

 

 

European Local Transportation Information Services (www.eltis.org)

This website provides information on various European Commission transportation improvement programs, including planning and evaluation which includes statistics on transportation system performance in different cities.

 

 

European Commission, DGVII (www.europa.eu.int/comm/dgs/energy_transport)

The European Commission, DGVII, web page contains transport statistics for EU countries, some countries in Eastern Europe, with comparisons with the U.S. and Japan. It publishes EU Energy and Transport In Figures (http://europa.eu.int/comm/dgs/energy_transport/figures/pocketbook), which provides comprehensive information on transportation in the European Union, and other documents on transportation.

 

 

European Conference of Ministers of Transport (www.oecd.org/cem/stat)

The European Conference of Ministers of Transport website provides information on various forms of transportation, including time series data on road, rail and marine transport networks and use, and transport safety.

 

 

European Environment Agency (www.eea.europa.eu)

This international organization provides information on European vehicle emissions and emission reduction strategies.

 

 

French Observatory on Transport Policies and Strategies in Europe (www.cnt.fr)

Provides European travel data and information on transportation planning activities.

 

 

Local Public Transport Trends In The European Union (www.uitp.org/statistics-brief-local-public-transport-trends-european-union)

The UITP (www.uitp.org), the international association of public transportation providers, produces annual publications that track and analyse public transport demand trends in the EU Member States, by country and the breakdown of journeys by public transport mode in urban and suburban areas.

 

 

Asia

Korean National Transport Database (http://english.koti.re.kr)

The Korean Transport Institute (KOTI) maintains a National Transport Survey and Analysis section that is committed to establishing and maintaining a comprehensive, standardized national transport database to support strategic policy making and evaluation of transport infrastructure investment, national transport demand forecasts, transport sector trend analysis, and suggest political coping strategies for pending transport issues. KOTI plans to improve survey methods so they are more consistent and cost effective, and easier to access by government agencies, businesses and the general public. Table 8 summarizes the strategic data collection plan.

 

Table 8            Korea Transport Data Collection Strategic Plan (KOTI 2011)

Classification

database type

Work Scope

Database contents

Renewal interval

Transport statistics

Transport statistics DB

 

Transport bibliography DB

About 323 items

 

 

About 22,000 items

Socioeconomic indices.

Basic statistics by transport mode/facility.

Overseas statistics and data, etc.

Annual and Rolling

Transport survey/ research analysis

Passenger traffic DB

Freight traffic DB

Logistics status DB

Trip generation unit DB

Traffic volume DB

Nationwide

For metropolitan areas

For small and

medium-sized cities

Passenger O/D

Freight O/D

Logistics status information.

Facility status.

Trip generation characteristics

Traffic volume

Marine freight, marine passenger traffic, transport volumes, etc.

Every five years

(Analysis is conducted every years)

Transport analysis network

Transportation network

DB

Nationwide.

For Seoul metropolitan area.

For other

metropolitan areas.

Possible to apply transport analysis packages such as Emme/2, TransCAD, and Tranplan

Annual

Transport thematic map

Transportation digital

map DB

National/ metropolitan

unit network support

NGIS based Roads, railways, etc.

Traffic facilities, general facilities, etc.

Annual (National/

Regional renewal every 2-3 years)

This table summarizes Korea’s transport data collection plans.

 

 

The program performs various travel surveys. In 2009 it surveyed vehicle traffic at 888 major road points in 248 cities, counties and districts throughout the nation, to determine the percentage of single-occupant vehicles and the number of car occupants for various time periods. The data are used to evaluate traffic problems and identify potential solutions.

 

Table 9            Korea Travel Survey Results (KOTI 2011)

Classification

Entire day

Morning

Afternoon

 

 

Peak

Off-Peak

Peak

Off-Peak

Number of vehicles surveyed

1,996,275

560,895

423,981

519,437

491,962

Single occupant vehicles (SOVs)

1,550,444

456,752

330,598

388,539

374,555

Percentage SOVs

77.7

81.4

78.0

74.8

76.1

Vehicle occupants

2,523,759

681,381

534,086

675,855

632,437

Average vehicle occupants

1.26

1.21

1.26

1.30

1.29

This table summarizes results of Korea’s 2009 national traffic survey.

 

 

United States

Bureau of Transportation Statistics (www.bts.gov)

The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a diversion of the US Department of Transportation, which serves as the lead agency in developing and coordinating intermodal transportation statistics. It provides comprehensive data collection, analysis, and reporting for a variety of U.S. government agencies, and produces a wide range of reports and databases. The annual National Transportation Statistics (www.bts.gov/publications/national_transportation_statistics) report provides annual information on vehicle ownership, vehicle travel, personal travel, freight travel, traffic crashes, energy consumption, pollution emissions and other transportation activities and impacts. State Transportation Statistics (www.bts.gov/publications/state_transportation_statistics), is a series of reports of major federal databases and other national sources related to each state's transportation infrastructure, safety, freight movement and passenger travel, vehicles, economy and finance, and energy and the environment.

 

Public Transit Statistics

The American Public Transportation Association (APTA) has a Transit Statistics webpage (www.apta.com/research/stats) and the annual Public Transportation Fact Book (www.apta.com/research/stats/factbook/index.cfm) which includes information on transit ridership, service, funding, operating costs, investments and revenues, by transit mode. The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) supports the National Transit Database (NTD), which includes standard data reported by more than 600 transit agencies (www.ntdprogram.gov). This information is provided for individual agencies, and in national summaries. A special section of the website provides datasets for previous years (www.ntdprogram.gov/ntdprogram/archives.htm). The data include:

 

 

Integrated National Transit Database Analysis System (INTDAS) (www.ftis.org/intdas.html) is an Internet-based system that integrates the FTA’s National Transit Database  data from multiple years into a single database with user-friendly interface and analysis tools for easy data access and analysis (Gan, Gui and Tang 2011). This is designed to facilitate trend analysis and performance evaluation that compares different agencies and jurisdictions.

 

 

2013 Commute Mode Share

The American Community Surveys includes commute mode share and duration for metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). This table reports this data and compares changes between 2009 and 2013.

 

TransStats: The Intermodal Transportation Database (www.transtats.bts.gov)

TransStats is a searchable index maintained by the Bureau of Transportation statistics with more than 100 transportation-related databases of various modes ― with many social and demographic data sets that are commonly used in transportation analysis.

 

 

Where We Stand – Transportation

The report, Where We Stand: Transportation, by the East-West Gateway compares St. Louis, MO with the 50 most populated metropolitan areas in the United States in terms of various factors including roadway supply, daily vehicle travel, congestion delay, commute mode share, transit ridership and access.

 

 

Transportation Statistics Annual Report (www.bts.gov/pdc/user/products/src/products.xml?p=2775&c=-1)

This Bureau of Transportation annual report provides information on Mobility and Access to Transportation, Safety and Security, Global Connectivity, and Energy and Environment.

 

 

Highway Statistics (www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/ohpi/hss/hsspubs.cfm)

The U.S. Federal Highway Administration’s annual Highway Statistics reports provide comprehensive information on roadway conditions, travel and expenditures in the U.S. The major sections are listed below, with most data provided by state and national totals.

·         Section I: Motor Fuel: consumption of petroleum and alternative fuels, prices and taxes.

·         Section II: Motor Vehicles: registrations, mileage, fuel efficiency and taxes.

·         Section III: Driver Licensing: driver licenses by age group.

·         Section IV: Highway Finance: vehicle user fee receipts, roadway expenditures, toll revenues, and transit expenditures, each grouped by local, state and federal level of government.

·         Section V: Roadway Extent, Characteristics, and Performance: public road supply, vehicle traffic and fatalities by roadway category (highway, arterial, collector, local, etc.) and geographic location (urban or rural).

·         Section VI: International Comparison: compares various transportation data with Japan, France, Germany, Sweden, United Kingdom, Canada, Mexico and the United States.

 

 

Government Transportation Financial Statistics (www.bts.gov/publications/government_transportation_financial_statistics)

Annual reports provide information on transportation revenues and expenditures for Federal, state and local governments, disaggregated by revenue source, expenditure type, and by mode of transportation. All data are reported in current and chained 2005 dollars.

 

State Transportation Statistics (www.bts.gov/publications/state_transportation_statistics)

The U.S. Department of Transportation’s Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) produces an annual reference guide to transportation data by state. These reports include 115 tables of state data on infrastructure, safety, freight transportation, passenger travel, registered vehicles and vehicle-miles traveled, economy and finance, and energy and environment.

 

 

Metropolitan Region

The FHWA annual Highway Statistics Reports (www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/ohpi/hss/hsspubs.cfm) include demographic, geographic and travel data for approximately 250 U.S. urban regions in tables HM-72, Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel, and HM-72, Selected Characteristics. These are available in Excel file formats to facilitate analysis.

 

 

Metropolitan Travel Survey Archives (www.surveyarchive.org)

The Metropolitan Travel Survey Archives is a special project by the University of Minnesota, funded by the U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics and the Federal Highway Administration, to store, preserve, and make publicly available, via the internet, travel surveys conducted by U.S. metropolitan areas, states and localities. As of 2006 the archive hosts about 58 surveys from 28 different agencies spanning over 40 years. Of these surveys, 44 have been converted to a standardized format to facilitate comparison and analysis.

 

The San Francisco Bay Area Metropolitan Transportation Commission’s Census Data & Reports website (www.mtc.ca.gov/maps_and_data/datamart/census) provides an excellent example of transportation-related statistics for a specific metropolitan region

 

 

Census Bureau (www.census.gov)

The U.S. Census Bureau collects and distributes a variety of data about the people and economy of the United States, including information on population, income, trade, transportation activities, journey to work, transportation industry employment and production. The American Community Survey (www.census.gov/acs), which replaces the census long form, provides community-level demographic and economic data, including income, employment rates, commute travel time and mode split. The 2001 American Housing Survey (www.census.gov/hhes/www/ahs.html) has information on average commute distance, time and mode. The Neighborhood Change Data Base has Tract level data from 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000 (www.uscensus.biz). The Census Data for Transportation Planning (www.trbcensus.com) includes a variety of information useful for transport analysis, including commute travel data. The annual Statistical Abstract of the United States (www.census.gov/compendia/statab) summarizes data from the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and many other Federal agencies and private organizations. The Transportation Chapter (www.census.gov/prod/2008pubs/09statab/trans.pdf ) includes statistics on transport infrastructure, vehicles, travel, safety and economic activity. The Journey to Work report (www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/c2kbr-33.pdf) provides information on commute patterns and their shifts between 1990 and 2000.

 

 

Environmental and Sustainable Development Statistics (www.sdi.gov)

Government agencies are estimated to spend approximately $600 million annually to collect environmental statistics, but these efforts are inefficient and the resulting data are often poor quality due to inadequate coordination (GAO 2004; Bullock 2006).

 

 

National Center for Statistics and Analysis NHTSA (www.nhtsa-tsis.net)

The National Center for Statistics and Analysis division of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) works to help insure that complete, accurate and timely traffic safety data are collected, analyzed and made available for decision-making at the U.S. national, state and local levels.

 

 

Bureau of Labor Statistics (www.bls.gov)

The Bureau of Labor Statistics produces the Consumer Expenditure Survey, which provides information on consumer expenditures on vehicles and other transportation related goods. It also provides price indices that are useful for adjusting prices to account for inflation. The Bureau of Economic Analysis (www.bea.gov) is an agency of the Department of Commerce which produces economic statistics such as employement and business activity.

 

 

Fedstats (www.fedstats.gov)

Contains statistics compiled by over seventy U.S. government agencies.

 

 

National Household Travel Survey (http://nhts.ornl.gov)

The National Household Travel Survey (formerly known as the Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey [NPTS] and the American Travel Survey [ATS]) are household-based travel surveys conducted every five years from a sample of U.S. households and expanded to provide national estimates of trips and miles by travel mode, purpose, and a host of other characteristics. The survey collects information on daily, local trips and on long-distance travel in the United States. Summary data and analysis are presented in reports, and users can access the complete database through an Internet interface that performs searches, sorting and other types of analysis. For

 

 

Department of Energy (www.doe.gov)

The U.S. Department of Energy provides comprehensive information on U.S. energy issues. The DOE’s Energy Information Administration (www.eia.doe.gov) provides statistical information on energy supply, demand, prices and alternative fuels. The DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratories produces an annual Transportation Energy Book (www-cta.ornl.gov/data) which provides information on U.S. transportation activities and resources. Annual Energy Review (www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/contents.html) provides information on U.S. energy production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices.

 

 

Environmental Protection Agency (www.usepa.gov/oppetptr/rap.htm)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provides information on transportation environmental impacts, including a publication on Transportation Indicators.

 

 

Nonmotorized Transport

Finding Pedestrian Data And Statistics (www.walkinginfo.org/facts/data.cfm) provides links to various information sources.

 

National Pedestrian and Bicyclist Survey (www.bts.gov/programs/omnibus_surveys/targeted_survey/2002_national_survey_of_pedestrian_and_bicyclist_attitudes_and_behaviors)

The 2002 National Survey of Pedestrian and Bicyclist Attitudes and Behaviors, sponsored by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) collected information on bicycle and pedestrian activity and the public's behavior and attitudes regarding bicycling and walking.

 

Bicycling and Walking in the U.S.: Benchmarking Reports (www.peoplepoweredmovement.org/benchmarking)

These reports provide data on bicycling and walking levels and demographics; bicycle and pedestrian safety; bicycle and pedestrian policies and provisions; funding for bicycle and pedestrian projects; bicycle and pedestrian staffing levels; written policies on bicycling and walking; bicycle infrastructure including bike lanes, paths, signed bike routes, and bicycle parking; bike-transit integration including presence of bike racks on buses, bike parking at transit stops; bicycling and walking education and encouragement activities; and public health indicators including levels of obesity, physical activity, diabetes, and high blood pressure. Most of the data is for the U.S., disaggregated at national, state and regional geographic scales, plus some international comparisons.

 

 

Regional Planning Agencies

Most regional planning agencies (called Metropolitan Planning Organizations or MPOs in the U.S.) and state and provincial transportation agencies have transportation data collection and modeling programs, including information on road, rail and transit networks, personal and freight transport, expenditures and crashes. This information is increasingly available through the Internet. For a list of regional government agencies see the National Association of Regional Councils website (www.narc.org).

 

 

Canada

Transport Canada (www.tc.gc.ca)

Transport Canada provides a variety of statistical information on vehicles, personal travel, transport safety and freight transport in Canada. The Transport In Canada (www.tc.gc.ca/eng/policy/report-aca-anre2010-index-2700.htm) annual reports provide information on vehicle ownership, travel, costs, etc. This information is summarized in the T-Facts information files (www.tc.gc.ca/pol/en/T-Facts3/TFactsmenu_e.asp).

 

 

Statistics Canada (www.statscan.ca)

Statistics Canada is a federal agency that collects, analyzes and distributes objective information on Canada’s population, resources, economy, society and culture, including statistics on road, rail, air, marine, vehicles, journey to work, trade, freight, consumer expenditures, and other transportation related factors. The Canadian Vehicle Survey (www.statcan.ca/english/IPS/Data/53F0004XIE.htm) provides quarterly data on vehicle ownership and use. The report, Commuting Patterns and Places of Work of Canadians (www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/analysis/pow/pdf/97-561-XIE2006001.pdf) summarizes commute mode split, distance and location data from the 2006 Canadian census.

 

 

Transportation Association of Canada (www.tac-atc.ca)

The Transportation Association of Canada is a non-profit association of transportation stakeholders in government, private industry, and educational institutions. It produces various information resources, including Urban Transportation Indicators Database and the Directory Of Canadian Transportation Data Sources. The Urban Transportation Indicators Survey (www.tac-atc.ca/english/resourcecentre/readingroom/pdf/uti-survey4.pdf) provides various information about individual Canadian urban regions, including road and transit service supply, trip generation (including non-motorized modes, public transport and automobile travel), mode share, accidents, energy consumption and pollution emissions, and land use development factors. The Fourth Urban Transportation Indicators Survey is available at http://tac-atc.ca/sites/tac-atc.ca/files/site/doc/resources/report-uti-survey4.pdf (English) and http://tac-atc.ca/francais/centredesressources/rapports.cfm (French). The Survey database is available at http://tac-atc.ca/english/resourcecentre/databases/index.cfm.

 

 

Fuel Consumption and GHG Emissions

A study by Pacific Analytics (2008) evaluates the quality of current transportation energy consumption and emission data, and recommends various ways to improve the quality of this information for policy analysis and planning purposes.


Canadian Urban Transit Association (www.cutaactu.ca)

Publishes annual transit statistics reports, including statistics on both public and private transit systems operated in urban municipalities in Canada.

 

 

National Private Vehicle Use Survey (NaPVUS) (http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/publications/infosource/pub/energy_use/NAPVUS/index.cfm)

Statistics Canada conducted this study to measure factors that affected fuel consumption and the distance driven by members of Canadian households. It also described the characteristics of the motor vehicle fleet used by members of households for personal reasons (with the exception of motorcycles, mopeds, scooters, recreational vehicles, vehicles rented for a short period, vehicles used only for commercial purposes and trucks used solely for camping). See the Comprehensive Energy Use Database (http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/corporate/statistics/neud/dpa/trends_tran_ns.cfm) and the Energy Use Data Handbook: 1990 and 1997 to 2003, Natural Resources Canada (http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/corporate/statistics/neud/dpa/data_e/handbook05/datahandbook2005.pdf), 2005.

 

 

Britain

The Royal Society of the Prevention of Accidents (www.rospa.org.uk)

The Royal Society of the Prevention of Accidents provides UK and International accident statistics, and extensive safety information.

 

 

Transport Statistics Great Britain (www.dft.gov.uk/transtat)

The British Department for Transport, Transport Statistics website provides the following national and regional transportation data:

·         Personal Travel, including information from the National Travel Survey.

·         Public Transport, including tables using information collected from bus and coach operators.

·         Road Vehicles, including stock and first registrations.

·         Road Traffic, including traffic and traffic speeds by region.

·         Roads, including road lengths and road condition by region.

·         Safety, including regional casualty figures for different types of road users.

·         Freight, including goods moved and lifted by origin and destination.

·         Air, including passenger and freight movements by region.

·         General, including regional population and GDP.

 

 

UK National Travel Survey (NTS) (www.statistics.gov.uk/ssd/surveys/national_travel_survey.asp)

The NTS, performed each decade, details of the travel habits of residents in Great Britain, and shows how these vary according to factors such as age, gender, car ownership and where people live.

 

 

Other Countries

Transportation, transit, planning, census, public safety and energy agencies provide transportation statistics, and an increasing portion are posting this information on the Internet. Below are some examples.

 

Australian Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics (www.bitre.gov.au

Australian Transportation Statistics (www.btre.gov.au/docs/trnstats02/trnstats.htm) provides comprehensive statistics on roadway, rail, marine and air transport in Australia. The Australian Transport Statistics Yearbook (www.bitre.gov.au/info.aspx?ResourceId=710&NodeId=111) provides data on employment, GDP, infrastructure expenditure, passenger and freight movements, trade, motor vehicles, fatalities and estimated greenhouse gas emissions attributed to the transport industry in document and spreadsheet format. The Transport Statistics Homepage (www.bitre.gov.au/info.aspx?NodeId=5) provides a variety of statistics on Australian transport services and activities. The report, Urban Passenger Transport: How People Move About In Australian Cities (www.bitre.gov.au/publications/05/Files/IS31.pdf) provides various urban transportation statistics.

 

 

Australian Bureau of Transport Economics (www.dotrs.gov.au)

Australian Transport Statistics (www.dotrs.gov.au/bte/stats.htm) provides various statistics on different forms of transportation in Australia.

 

 

Australian Transportation Data Action Network (www.nss.gov.au/transportmetadata)

This interagency network coordinates a national effort to improve the accessibility and quality of Australian transportation data. ATDAN was created in 2009 to implement the Australian Transport Council’s Data Action Plan . ATDAN reports to the Network Performance Standing Sub-Committee (NPSSC) and meets at least twice yearly. The group is chaired by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) and comprises representatives from the NPSSC, Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government (DITRDLG), National Transport Council (NTC) and jurisdictional transport agencies. The group works to improve transportation data collection, and develop and promote metadata standards and frameworks.

 

The ABS Data Quality Framework (DQF) provides the standards for assessing and reporting on the quality of statistical information. This framework has been used as a basis for developing the metadata statements on Transmet. The use of the DQF encourages national consistency by adopting a common terminology and providing basic information about the respective data set under standardised headings and sections. The ABS Data Quality Framework is comprised of seven quality dimensions:

·         Institutional Environment

·         Relevance

·         Timeliness

·         Accuracy

·         Coherence

·         Interpretability

·         Accessibility

 

 

Victoria Australia Department of Transport Statistics (www.transport.vic.gov.au/statistics) provides various transportation statistics from the State of Victoria, including the following:

 

The Victorian Transport Statistics Portal (www1.transport.vic.gov.au/VTSP/homepage.html) provides access to a variety of data suitable for comparing travel conditions and activities in cities around the world.

 

Public transport facts and figures - key statistics for buses, trains and trams.

Taxi industry statistics - details of number of licenses, trips, average fares and more.

Victorian Integrated Survey of Travel and Activity - a major survey of travel behaviours of Victorians.

Transport Demand Information Atlas for Victoria

Track Record - monthly and quarterly bulletins about the performance of Victoria's public transport services.

Transport Demand Information Atlas for Victoria 2009 - details aspects of the passenger and freight tasks.

Research links - other statistics and research-related websites.

 

 

New Zealand Ministry of Transport (www.transport.govt.nz/ongoing-travel-survey-index).

The New Zealand Ongoing Household Travel Survey analyzes the travel activity of more than 4,600 households throughout New Zealand. All travel activity is recording over a two-day period and each household member is interviewed about travel-related information. The data are presented in various factsheets and spreadsheets. Milne, Rendall and Abley (2011) summarizes results.

 

How New Zealanders Travel. Overall report.

 

Risk on the road Provides information on the risks of being involved or killed or injured in motor vehicle crashes in New Zealand. Includes risk by travel mode, risk by age demographic for drivers, passengers, pedestrians and cyclists, risk by when travelling.

Cycling for transport Includes information on travel mode share, who cycles, cycling times and distances, destinations and purposes of cycling, trends in cycling.

Walking for transport Includes information on travel mode share, walking by age, gender, household structure (such as household type, household vehicles), walking destinations and purposes, time spent walking, trends in walking.

Driver travel Driver travel in light four-wheeled vehicles (cars, vans, utes and SUVs), including driver demographics, destinations, vehicle types, information about passengers carried, time of day, lifetime driving experience and trends in driver travel. Version 1.2 replaces the earlier version. It includes revisions, amendments and the addition of a section on SUV travel.

Comparing Travel Modes Includes trends in mode share, travel by different age groups and destination types, travel to school, and travel by urban and rural residents. Version 1.4 replaces the earlier version. It includes revisions and amendments. 

The Transport Monitoring Indicator Framework includes selected national and regional results, graphs and maps.

 

 

India

Transport India (www.transportindia.in/l_Statistics_home.asp) provides information on infrastructure (railroads, roads and airports). IndiaStats provides information on transportation infrastructure, vehicles and activities, but much of the information must be purchased.

 

Table 10                       Indian Cities Mode Share, 2007 (Wilbur Smith 2008)

City

Category

City

Population

Walk

Bicycle

Motor-cycle

Public Transport

Car

Auto Rickshaw

Category-1a

<500,000, plain terrain

34

 3

 26

 5

 27

 5

Category-1b

<500,000, hilly terrain

 57

 1

 6

 8

 28

 0

Category-2

 500,000-1,000,000

 32

 20

 24

 9

 12

 3

Category-3

 1,000,000-2,000,000

 24

 19

 24

 13

 12

 8

Category-4

 2,000,000-4,000,000

 25

 18

 29

 10

 12

 6

Category-5

 4,000,000-8,000,000

 25

 11

 26

 21

 10

 7

National

 

28

11

16

27

13

6

This table indicates the mode split in Indian cities. Walking is the dominant mode but receives little consideration in transport planning and investment.

 

 

The Centre for Development Finance produced the India Energy Atlas (www.householdenergy.in/downloads/Atlas-of-Household-Energy-CDF.pdf) an interactive online resource provides information on household fuel consumption and expenditure data across the urban and rural areas of India’s 28 states. This information is from the National Sample Survey (2004-05).

 

Tiwari (2014) summarizes the results of Indian travel surveys in order to compare men’s and women’s travel patterns, and to identify women’s travel demands and obstacles.

 

 

Norway (www.toi.no)

The Norwegian Transportøkonomisk Institutt (Institute of Transport Economics) publishes annual reports on traffic volumes and travel activity.

 

 

Africa (www.uitp.org/knowledge/projects-details.cfm?id=444)

The Report On Statistical Indicators Of Public Transport Performance In Sub-Saharan Africa (UITP 2010) provides information urban population and area, vehicle ownership, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, portion of household budget devoted to transport, roadway supply, percentage of paved roads, number of vehicles by mode (motorcycles, cars, buses, trucks), capacity (seats) and occupancy per vehicle,  average annual kilometers per vehicle, annual passengers per transit vehicle, daily trips per transit vehicle, mode share (walking, cycling, motorcycle, private car, private taxi, public transit, informal public transit, etc.), annual roadway investments, annual investments in public annual private car operating costs, annual fuel consumption per vehicle, annual operating costs of public transit vehicles, transit, annual public transit revenue, transit fares, traffic fatalities, vehicle air pollutants, and average traffic speeds.

 

Wit and Humor

A prominent scientist conducted an experiment. He trained a flea to jump when it heard a bell. He then removed one of the flea’s legs and found that it would still jump in response to the bell. The scientist wrote in his laboratory notebook, “Upon removing one leg, all flea organs function properly.”

 

Next, he removed the flea’s second leg, and found that it sill responded to the bell by jumping. He wrote, “Upon removing a second leg, all flea organs continue to function properly.”

 

Thereafter he removed each of the flea’s legs, one by one, and the flea continued to jump in response to the bell. Each time the scientist carefully noted in his notebook that the flea’s organs continued to function. Finally, he removed the last leg and rang the bell. This time the flea did not jump. This observation he recorded in his notebook.

 

In order to insure the statistical accuracy of his study the scientist repeated this experiment several times. In each case the fleas jumped on command until their last leg was removed. After several days of painstaking work the scientist finally wrote his conclusions: “When their legs are removed, a flea loses its sense of hearing.”

 

-The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals certifies that no fleas were harmed in the production of this joke.

 

 

Examples and Case Studies

 

European Platform on Mobility Management TEMS

The European Platform on Mobility Management (EPOMM) has launched TEMS (http://epomm.eu/tems) an online tool allowing access to modal split data from currently more than 250 cities across Europe. The TEMS database was created with the support of Intelligent Energy Europe in the project EPOMM-PLUS. Users can select a city from the map or compare a group of cities using the search options in the menu. This is the first publicly accessible database that allows easy access to such data on a European-wide scale. The database is rapidly expanding, as users can easily upload (http://epomm.eu/tems/upload) city data.

 

Transport Emission Evaluation (Robertson, Jägerbrand and Tschan (2015)

This report investigate the needs and gaps in developing country’s ability to measure, report and verify the emission reductions of transportation policies and projects. The study reviewed the general and transportation-specific data availability, requirements and methodologies used by national and international organizations for evaluating the emission impacts of transportation policies and projects in developing countries.

 

The study concludes that traffic and transportation impact evaluation is a complex and demanding process, and the potential for misinterpretation of results is significant. Furthermore, it seems the project-based evaluations often apply excessively short analysis periods. Other challenges relate to institutional roles and responsibilities, the availability of personal and financial resources, and the knowledge and perspectives applied. Based on these findings the report recommends further development of transport-related climate mechanisms towards a more sectoral and transformational perspective.

 

 

Data Quality Needs Evaluation (www.ccap.org/index.php?component=programs&id=35)

The study, Data & Capacity Needs for Transportation NAMAs, describes the data requirements for evaluating Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) so they can qualify for emission reduction credits.

 

Best Practices In Road Safety Statistics and Analysis (http://ec.europa.eu/transport/roadsafety_library/publications/supreme_f7_thematic_report_statistics_and_in_depth_analysis.pdf

A study of best practices in road safety research recommends collecting the following standardized data in each jurisdiction:

Crash data

CARE database

Linking medical files with crash data

Exposure data

Population by age, gender, region

Driver population, by license type, age, gender

Road length by road category

Vehicle fleet by type, age, make, mass, EuroNcap score

Vehicle kilometres by type, month, day, hour, region, …

Fuel sales by type, month

Infrastructure data

Several network and design characteristics/SPIs (safety performance indicators)

Characteristics of people in traffic, independent of crash involvement

Alcohol and drug use of traffic participants

Speed (average, V90, variance % exceeding limit) by road type

Seatbelts/restraint systems/helmets

Daytime running lights

Trauma management: timing and quality of treatment

 

 

Sustainable National Travel Data Program Study (http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/sr/sr304.pdf)

The report, How We Travel: A Sustainable National Program for Travel Data, by the Transportation Research Board assesses the current state of travel data, including a review of transportation-related data collected by federal, state, and local government agencies (USDOT, RITA/BTS, MPOs, and local governments) and private organizations. It describes the various uses of this information and problems from inadequate data, and estimates collection costs. Identifies transport policy issues for which adequate data are lacking, including economic development, aging population, intercity rail, energy efficiency, climate change emissions and congestion, but does not mention sustainable transport planning indicators, or newer impact categories such as public health and affordability. It defines an achievable and sustainable travel data system needed to support better transport decision making. It recommends the organization of a National Travel Data Program built on a core of essential passenger and freight travel data sponsored at the federal level and well integrated with travel data collected by states, metropolitan planning organizations, transit and other local agencies, and the private sector.

 

 

Travel Statistics For Sustainable Transport Planning in Korea (KOTI 2011)

As part of its national Green Transportation Planning program, Korea has established vehicle travel surveys, development of an index to evaluate green growth in the transport sector, reorganization policies to improve data reliability, and revision of guidelines for transport project evaluation.

 

 

200 countries, 200 years, 4 minutes (www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00cgkfk)

Hans Rosling’s lectures combine enormous quantities of public data with a sport's commentator's style to reveal the story of the world's past, present and future development. In this spectacular section of 'The Joy of Stats' he tells the story of the world in 200 countries over 200 years using 120,000 numbers - in just four minutes.

Plotting life expectancy against income for every country since 1810, Rosling shows how the world we live in is radically different from the world most of us imagine.

 

 

References And Resources For More Information

 

AASHTO (2013), Commuting In America 2013: The National Report on Commuting Patterns and Trends, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (www.aashto.org); at http://traveltrends.transportation.org/Pages/default.aspx

 

ABW (2010 to 2014), Bicycling and Walking in the U.S.: Benchmarking Reports, Alliance for Biking & Walking, (www.peoplepoweredmovement.org); at www.peoplepoweredmovement.org/benchmarking.

 

ACEEE (2010), Where Has All the Data Gone?, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (www.aceee.org); at http://aceee.org/pubs/e101.htm.

 

ADB (2001), Urban Indicators for Managing Cities: Cities Data Book, Asian Development Bank (www.adb.org); at www.adb.org/publications/urban-indicators-managing-cities.

 

AFED (2011), “Transportation,” Arab Green Economy Report, Arab Forum for Environment and Development (http://afedonline.org); at http://afedonline.org/Report2011/PDF/En/chapter%205%20Transportation.pdf.

 

APTA (annual reports), Transit Statistics, American Public Transportation Association (www.apta.com/research/stats).

 

ATSB (2007), International Road Safety Comparisons: The 2005 Report A Comparison of Road Safety Statistics in OECD Nations and Australia, Australian Transport Safety Bureau (www.atsb.gov.au); at www.atsb.gov.au/publications/2007/pdf/Int_comp_05.pdf.

 

Australian Transportation Data Action Network (www.nss.gov.au/transportmetadata) coordinates a national effort to improve the accessibility and quality of Australian transportation data.

 

David Bassett, John Pucher, Ralph Buehler, Dixie L. Thompson, and Scott E. Crouter (2008), “Walking, Cycling, and Obesity Rates in Europe, North America, and Australia,” Journal of Physical Activity and Health, Vol. 5 (www.humankinetics.com/jpah/journalAbout.cfm), pp. 795-814; at http://policy.rutgers.edu/faculty/pucher/JPAH08.pdf.

 

David Bassett, et al. (2011), “Active Transportation and Obesity in Europe, North America, and Australia,” ITE Journal, Vol. 81/8, pp. 24-28; abstract at www.ite.org/itejournal/1108.asp.

 

BITRE (2009), Urban Passenger Transport: How People Move About In Australian Cities, Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics (www.bitre.gov.au); at www.bitre.gov.au/publications/05/Files/IS31.pdf.

 

Ralph Buehler, John Pucher, Dafna Merom and Adrian Bauman (2011), “Active Travel In Germany And The U.S.: Contributions Of Daily Walking And Cycling To Physical Activity,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume: 41, Issue: 3, Publisher: Elsevier Inc., pp. 241-250; at http://tinyurl.com/mfmu3yd.

 

BTS (annual reports), National Transportation Statistics, Bureau of Transportation Statistics (www.bts.gov/publications/national_transportation_statistics).

 

BTS (annual reports), Transportation Statistics Annual Report (www.bts.gov/pdc/user/products/src/products.xml?p=2775&c=-1) provide information on Mobility and Access to Transportation, Safety and Security, Global Connectivity, and Energy and Environment.

 

BTS (2007), State Transportation Statistics (www.bts.gov/pdc/user/products/src/products.xml?p=2773). Provides information on infrastructure, freight movement and passenger travel, safety, vehicles, economy and finance, and energy and the environment covering the 50 U.S. states.

 

Bureau of Transportation Statistics (www.bts.gov) provides comprehensive transportation information for the United States.

 

CCAP (2010), Data & Capacity Needs for Transportation NAMAs, Center for Clean Air Policy (www.ccap.org); at www.ccap.org/index.php?component=programs&id=35.

Report 1: Data Availability (www.ccap.org/docs/resources/925/CCAP_Transport_NAMA_Data_Availability.pdf)

Report 2: Data Selection (www.ccap.org/docs/resources/972/Transport_NAMA_Data_Selection.pdf)

Report 3: Capacity-Building Needs (www.ccap.org/docs/resources/973/Transport_NAMA_Capacity-Building.pdf).

 

Centre for Data and Analysis in Transportation (www.cdat.ecn.ulaval.ca) is dedicated to improving knowledge about energy use in the Canadian transportation sector in order to better understand the factors affecting energy efficiency and consumption in this sector, and the economic and environmental impacts of transportation policies.

 

CIT (2007), Are We There Yet? A Comparison of Transport in Europe, Commission for Integrated Transport (www.cfit.gov.uk); at www.cfit.gov.uk/docs/2007/ebp/index.htm.

 

City Data (www.city-data.com) is an easily accessible database of information about U.S. cities, including maps and photos, real estate prices and sales, resident statistics (race, income, ancestries, education, employment...), geographical data, crime data, cost of living, housing, religions, businesses, city government finances and employment, weather, unemployment, public infrastructure and institutions, available at the neighborhood and zipcode scale.

 

City Forward (www.cityforward.org)  is a free website that provides comprehensive demographic, economic and geographic information on more than 100 international cities in a format that facilitates comparisons and analysis.

 

CODATU (2009), Who Pays What For Urban Transport? Handbook Of Good Practices, Cooperation For Urban Mobility In The Developing World (www.codatu.org); at www.codatu.org/english/studies/handbook_good_practices.pdf.

 

Forrest M. Council, David L. Harkey, Daniel L. Carter and Bryon White (2007), Model Minimum Inventory of Roadway Elements—MMIRE, Federal Highway Administration (www.fhwa.dot.gov); at www.tfhrc.gov/safety/pubs/07046/index.htm.

 

CSGC (2009), California Strategic Growth Council Data Needs Survey, California Strategic Growth Council (www.sgc.ca.gov).

 

CUTA (annual reports), Canadian Transit Fact Book, Canadian Urban Transit Association (www.cutaactu.ca); at www.cutaactu.ca/en/publicationsandresearch/reports.asp.

 

Stacy C. Davis and Susan W. Diegel (2006), Transportation Energy Data Book, Center for Transportation Analysis, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy (http://cta.ornl.gov/data).

 

Liisa Ecola, et al. (2014), The Future of Driving in Developing Countries, RAND Institute for Mobility Research (www.ifmo.de); at www.ifmo.de/tl_files/publications_content/2014/ifmo_2014_BRIC_automobility_en.pdf.

 

EIA (annual reports), Annual Energy Review, Energy Information Administration (www.eia.doe.gov); at www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/contents.html. provides information on U.S. energy production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices.

 

EMBARQ (2008), Measuring The Invisible: New EMBARQ Publications Help Cities Quantify Emissions From Reductions From Transport Solutions, EMBARQ - The World Resources Institute Center for Sustainable Transport (www.embarq.wri.org); at http://embarq.wri.org/en/Article.aspx?id=140#Queretaro.

 

Marcus P. Enoch and James P. Warren (2008), “Automobile Use Within Selected Island States,” Transportation Research Record A (www.elsevier.com/locate/tra), Vol. 42, Issue 9, pp. 1208-1219.

 

EPOMM Mode Split Model (http://epomm.eu/tems) by the European Platform on Mobility Management provides modal split data from currently more than 250 cities across Europe.

 

EU Mobility and Transport (http://ec.europa.eu/transport) provides statistical information and research reports on transportation facilities, funding, activity and impacts for European Union countries. The EU Transport Scorecard (http://ec.europa.eu/transport/facts-fundings/scoreboard) provides information for comparing and evaluating transport system performance for each country.

 

EWG (2015), Where We Stand: Transportation, East-West Gateway (www.ewgateway.org); at www.ewgateway.org/pdffiles/library/wws/wws2015-Transportation.pdf.

 

FHWA (annual reports), Highway Statistics, FHWA, USDOT (www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/ohpi/hss/hsspubs.cfm). For data on individual urban region see table HM-72, Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel, and HM-72, Selected Characteristics.

 

Gallup (2011), “Mapping the Nation’s Well-Being,” New York Times (www.nytimes.com), 5 March 2011; at www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/03/06/weekinreview/20110306-happiness.html?ref=weekinreview.

 

Albert Gan, Feng Gui and Li Tang (2011), “System for Transit Performance Analysis Using the National Transit Database,” Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 87-108; at www.nctr.usf.edu/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/JPT14.3.pdf.

 

GIZ (2015), The Role of Open Data in Sustainable Transport, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (www.giz.de/transport); at www.sutp.org/files/contents/documents/News/The%20Role%20of%20Open%20Data%20in%20Sustainable%20Transport_GIZ_28092015.pdf.

 

Global City Indicators (www.cityindicators.org) provides an established set of city indicators with a globally standardized methodology that allows for global comparability of city performance and knowledge sharing.

 

Global Transport Intelligence Initiative (www.slocat.net/key-slocat-prog/466) is a program by international organizations involved in the collection, analysis and dissemination of data on transport in the developing countries.  

 

GRSF (2014), Transport for Health: The Global Burden of Disease from Motorized Road Transport, Global Road Safety Facility (www.worldbank.org/grsf) and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (www.healthmetricsandevaluation.org); at http://tinyurl.com/mfoxvt3.

 

Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator (www.epa.gov/solar/energy-resources/calculator.html) is a USEPA website that compares various units and examples of climate change emissions and emission reduction impacts.

 

International Association of Public Transport (www.uitp.com).

 

International Fuel Prices (www.internationalfuelprices.com) is a website with information on international fuel price reports from GTZ (a German international development agency) and other sources.

 

iRAP (regularly updated) International Transport Statistics Database (www.iraptranstats.net), by the Transport Statistics Programme, funding by the FIA Foundation for the Automobile and Society, provides a wide selection of transport statistics.

 

JICA (2011), The Research on Practical Approach for Urban Transport Planning, Japan International Cooperation Agency (www.jica.go.jp); at http://tinyurl.com/oy7bmhw.

 

G. Jocobs, A. Aeron-Thomas and A. Astrop (2000), Estimating Global Road Fatalities, Overseas Unit, Transport and Road Research Laboratory (www.transport-links.org); at www.factbook.net/EGRF_Regional_analyses_HMCs.htm.

 

Jeffrey Kenworthy (2008), “Transport Heaven and Hell,” ITS Magazine, February; at www.industry.siemens.de/traffic/EN/NEWS/ITSMAGAZINE/HTML/0802/fokus_1.html.

 

Jeff Kenworthy (2008), “An International Review of The Significance of Rail in Developing More Sustainable Urban Transport Systems in Higher Income Cities,” World Transport Policy & Practice, Vol. 14, No. 2 (www.eco-logica.co.uk); at www.eco-logica.co.uk/pdf/wtpp14.2.pdf.

 

Jeff Kenworthy (2014), “Total Daily Mobility Patterns and Their Policy Implications for Forty-Three Global Cities in 1995 and 2005,” World Transport Policy and Practice, Vol. 20.1 January, pp. 41-55; at http://worldstreets.files.wordpress.com/2014/01/wtpp20-1.pdf.

 

Jeffrey R. Kenworthy and Felix B. Laube (1999), An International Sourcebook of Automobile Dependence in Cities, 1960-1990, University Press of Colorado (Boulder).

 

Jeffrey R. Kenworthy and Felix B. Laube (2001), The Millennium Cities Database for Sustainable Transport, International Association of Public Transport (www.uitp.com).

 

Key World Energy Statistics (www.iea.org/statistics) by the International Energy Agency (www.iea.org), provides information on energy production, consumption and price.

 

KOTI (2011), Toward an Integrated Green Transportation System in Korea, Korea Transport Institute (http://english.koti.re.kr).

 

J. Richard Kuzmyak and Jennifer Dill (2012), “Walking and Bicycling in the United States: The Who, What, Where, and Why,” TR News 280, Transportation Research Board (www.trb.org); at http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/trnews/trnews280toc.pdf

 

Todd Litman (2003), “Measuring Transportation: Traffic, Mobility and Accessibility,” ITE Journal (www.ite.org), Vol. 73, No. 10, October, pp. 28-32; at www.vtpi.org/measure.pdf.

 

Todd Litman (2006), Transportation Cost and Benefit Analysis: Techniques, Estimates and Implications, Victoria Transport Policy Institute (www.vtpi.org/tca). Includes information sources for many specific economic, social and environmental costs related to transport.

 

Todd Litman (2007), “Developing Indicators For Comprehensive And Sustainable Transport Planning,” Transportation Research Record 2017, Transportation Research Board (www.trb.org), 2007, pp. 10-15; at www.vtpi.org/sus_tran_ind.pdf.

 

Todd Litman (2008), Well Measured: Developing Indicators for Comprehensive and Sustainable Transport Planning, VTPI (www.vtpi.org); at www.vtpi.org/wellmeas.pdf.

 

Todd Litman (2009), The Future Isn’t What It Used To Be: Changing Trends And Their Implications For Transport Planning, Victoria Transport Policy Institute (www.vtpi.org); at www.vtpi.org/future.pdf; originally published as  “Changing Travel Demand: Implications for Transport Planning,” ITE Journal, Vol. 76, No. 9, (www.ite.org), September 2006, pp. 27-33.

 

Todd Litman (2010), Short and Sweet: Analysis of Shorter Trips Using National Personal Travel Survey Data, Victoria Transport Policy Institute (www.vtpi.org); at www.vtpi.org/short_sweet.pdf.

 

Todd Litman (2011), “Adjusting Data Collection Methods: Making the Case for Policy Changes to Build Healthy Communities,” From Inspiration to Action: Implementing Projects to Support Active Living, American Association for Retired Persons (www.aarp.org) and Walkable and Livable Communities Institute (www.walklive.org), pp. 104-107; at www.walklive.org/project/implementation-guide.

 

Todd Litman (2013), Valuing and Improving Transportation-Related Data Programs: Report From 2013 TRB Sessions, Victoria Transport Policy Institute (www.vtpi.org); at www.vtpi.org/TRB_data.pdf.

 

Anthony May, Susan Grant-Muller, Greg Marsden and Sotirios Thanos (2008), Improving The Collection And Monitoring Of Urban Travel Data: An International Review, #08-1244, TRB Annual Meeting (www.trb.org); summary at http://144.171.11.39/view.aspx?id=847932.

 

Nancy McGuckin (2011), Summary of Travel Trends 1969 to 2009, Travel Behavior Associates (www.travelbehavior.us); at www.travelbehavior.us/Nancy-pdfs/Summary%20of%20Travel%20Trends%201969%20to%202009.pdf.

 

Brian McKenzie (2014), Modes Less Traveled—Bicycling and Walking to Work in the United States: 2008–2012, American Community Survey Reports, ACS-26, U.S. Census

Bureau (www.census.gov); at www.census.gov/hhes/commuting/files/2014/acs-25.pdf.

 

Gerhard Metschies (2005), International Fuel Prices 2005, with Comparative Tables for 172 Countries, German Agency for Technical Cooperation (www.internationalfuelprices.com).

 

Adam Millard-Ball and Lee Schipper (2010), “Are We Reaching Peak Travel? Trends in Passenger Transport in Eight Industrialized Countries,” Transport Reviews, Vol. 30 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01441647.2010.518291); at thttp://web.mit.edu/vig/Public/peaktravel.pdf

 

A. Milne, S. Rendall and S Abley (2011), National Travel Profiles Part B: Trips, Trends And Travel Prediction, Research Report 467, NZ Transport Agency (www.nzta.govt.nz); at www.nzta.govt.nz/resources/research/reports/467/docs/467.pdf.

 

National Household Travel Survey (http://nhts.ornl.gov), Federal Highway Administration and the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Provides information on U.S. travel activity from a series of travel surveys performed in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995, 2001 and 2009. Results of these surveys are analyzed using Standard and Customized Tables.

 

National TOD Database (www.toddata.cnt.org)  provides detailed demographic, geographic and economic data for 3,776 U.S. urban rail transit stations and 833 proposed stations in 47 metropolitan areas, suitable for research purposes.

 

NationMaster (www.nationmaster.com) is a vast compilation of data from such sources as the CIA World Factbook, UN, and OECD categorized by subject and country. It can be used to compare countries and generate maps and graphs.

 

NATS (2008), North American Transportation Statistics Database, North American Transportation Statistics (http://nats.sct.gob.mx/nats/sys/index.jsp?i=3).

 

NHTSA (2004), National Minimum Model Uniform Crash Criteria, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (www.nhtsa-tsis.net); at www.nhtsa-tsis.net/projects/NHTSA/NHTSA_GHSA_MMUCC.htm.

 

NZMT (ongoing), Ongoing Travel Survey, New Zealand Ministry of Transport (www.transport.govt.nz/ongoing-travel-survey-index).

 

Office of Highway Policy Information (www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/ohpi) provides information on U.S. highway system planning, funding and use.

 

OECD (annual reports), International Road Traffic and Accident Database, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (www.bast.de/htdocs/fachthemen/irtad//english/we2.html).

 

OECD (annual reports), OECD Factbook, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (www.sourceoecd.org/factbook).

 

OECD (2008), Trends in the Transport Sector, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (www.oecd-ilibrary.org).

 

OECD (2009), Key Transport Statistics, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (www.oecd-ilibrary.org); at www.internationaltransportforum.org/Pub/pdf/10KeyStat2009.pdf

 

Pacific Analytics (2008), Assessing Vehicular GHG Emissions: Comparison of Theoretical Measures and Technical Approaches, for the Community Energy and Emissions Inventory (CEEI) Working Group, British Columbia; at www.env.gov.bc.ca/epd/climate/pdfs/ceei-comparison-study.pdf.

Di Pan (2013), “Key Transport Statistics for World Cities,” JOURNEYS, LTA Academy (http://ltaacademy.lta.gov.sg); at www.lta.gov.sg/ltaacademy/doc/13Sep105-Pan_KeyTransportStatistics.pdf.

 

Pedestrian Quality Needs Study (www.walkeurope.org) is developing resources for evaluating pedestrians’ quality needs, and is producing reports on pedestrian conditions and activity in each participating country.

 

Pnina O. Plaut (2006), “Intra-Household Choices Regarding Commuting and Housing,” Transportation Research A, Vol. 40, Issue 7 (www.elsevier.com/locate/tra), August 2006, pp. 561-571.

 

Steven E. Polzin, Xuehao Chu and Nancy McGuckin (2011), Exploring Changing Travel Trends, presented at Using National Household Travel Survey Data for Transportation Decision Making: A Workshop, Transportation Research Board (www.trb.org); at http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/conferences/2011/NHTS1/Polzin2.pdf.

 

Richard H. Pratt (1999-2007), Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes, TCRP Report 95 Series, Web Document 12 (www.trb.org/trbnet/projectdisplay.asp?projectid=1033).

 

John Pucher and John L. Renne (2003), “Socioeconomics of Urban Travel: Evidence from the 2001 NHTS, Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 57, No. 3 (www.enotrans.com), Summer 2003, pp. 49-77, at www.vtpi.org/TQNHTS.pdf.

 

Robert Puentes (2008), The Road…Less Traveled: An Analysis of Vehicle Miles Traveled Trends in the U.S., Brooking Institution (www.brookings.edu); at www.brookings.edu/reports/2008/1216_transportation_tomer_puentes.aspx?emc=lm&m=220694&l=17&v=39243.

 

Clara Reschovsky (2004), Journey to Work: 2000 Census Brief, U.S. Census (www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/c2kbr-33.pdf).

 

RITA (annual reports), State Transportation Statistics, Research and Innovative Technology Administration (www.rita.dot.gov); at www.bts.gov/publications/state_transportation_statistics.

 

RITA (2011), Multimodal Transportation Indicators, Research and Innovative Technology Administration (www.rita.dot.gov); at www.bts.gov/publications/key_transportation_indicators.

 

Kerstin Robertson, Annika K. Jägerbrand and Georg F. Tschan (2015), Evaluation Of Transport Interventions In Developing Countries, Report 855A, VTI (www.vti.se); at www.vti.se/en/publications/pdf/evaluation-of-transport-interventions-in-developing-countries.pdf.

 

Hans Rosling (2010), 200 countries, 200 years, 4 minutes, BBC (www.bbc.co.uk); at www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00cgkfk or www.wimp.com/countriesyears.

 

Rutgers (various years), Cross National Time Series (www2.scc.rutgers.edu/cnts/about.php) Rutgers University, is a set of databases that provide social and economic indicators for 266 countries, beginning in the year 1815. Access is limited.

 

A. Santos, et al. (2011), Summary of Travel Trends: 2009 National Household Travel Survey, FHWA (http://nhts.ornl.gov); at http://nhts.ornl.gov/2009/pub/stt.pdf. Also see, Nancy McGuckin (2011), Summary of Travel Trends 1969 to 2009, Travel Behavior Associates (www.travelbehavior.us); at www.travelbehavior.us/Nancy-pdfs/Summary%20of%20Travel%20Trends%201969%20to%202009.pdf.

 

Lee Schipper, Herbert Fabian and James Leather (2009), Transport and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Forecasts, Options Analysis, and Evaluation, Asian Development Bank (www.adb.org); at www.adb.org/documents/papers/adb-working-paper-series/ADB-WP09-Transport-CO2-Emissions.pdf.

 

Donald Shoup (2003), “Truth in Transportation Planning,” Journal of Transportation Statistics, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 1-6; at http://shoup.bol.ucla.edu/TruthInTransportationPlanning.pdf.

 

Michael Sivak and Brandon Schoettle (2014), Mortality from Road Crashes in 193 Countries: A Comparison with Other Leading Causes of Death, University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (www.umich.edu/~umtriswt); at http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/102731/102989.pdf.

 

SLoCaT (2010), Transport Data Contact Group, Sustainable, Low Carbon Transport Partnership (www.sutp.org/slocat).

 

Specialty Data Bundle -US National Transportation Data Bundle, The GeoCommunity Marketplace (www.gisdatadepot.com) a collection of data for use in GIS from the National Transportation Atlas Database.

 

Bert Sperling (2007), Cities Ranked & Rated: More Than 400 Metropolitan Areas Evaluated in the U.S. & Canada, Wiley Publishing (www.wiley.com).

 

StatsCan (2000), Canadian Vehicle Survey, Statistics Canada (www.statcan.ca); at http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/Statcan/53-223-X/53-223-XIE2003000.pdf.

 

StatsCan (2006), Human Activity and the Environment: Annual Statistics; Transportation In Canada Special Report, Statistics Canada (www.statcan.ca).

 

StatsCan (2008), Commuting Patterns and Places of Work of Canadians, 2006 Census, Statistics Canada (www.statcan.ca); at www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/analysis/pow/index.cfm.

 

StatsCan (2013), Commuting to Work:  National Household Survey, 2011, Catalogue no. 99-012-2011003, Statistics Canada (www12.statcan.gc.ca); at www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-012-x/99-012-x2011003_1-eng.pdf.

 

Sustainable Development Indicators Website (www.sdi.gov) provides information on various environmental and sustainable development statistics available in the U.S., much of which are provided by federal government agencies.

 

STI (2008), Sustainable Transportation Indicators: A Recommended Program To Define A Standard Set of Indicators For Sustainable Transportation Planning, Sustainable Transportation Indicators Subcommittee (ADD40 [1]), Transportation Research Board (www.trb.org); at www.vtpi.org/sustain/sti.pdf.

 

SUPREME (2005), “Statistics & In Depth Analysis,” Best Practices In Road Safety, Summary And Publication Of Best Practices In Road Safety In The Member States, European Commission (http://ec.europa.eu); at http://ec.europa.eu/transport/supreme/index_en.htm.

 

TAC (2010), Urban Transportation Indicators: Fourth Survey, Transportation Association of Canada (www.tac-atc.ca); at www.tac-atc.ca/english/resourcecentre/readingroom/pdf/uti-survey4.pdf.

 

TCRP (2002), Characteristics of Urban Transportation Systems, TCRP Report 73, Transportation Research Board, Federal Transit Administration (http://www4.trb.org), at http://www4.trb.org/trb/onlinepubs.nsf/web/TCRP_Reports.

 

Geetam Tiwari (2014), Planning And Designing Transport Systems To Ensure Safe Travel For Women, Paper 2014-04, International Transport Forum (www.internationaltransportforum.org); at www.internationaltransportforum.org/jtrc/DiscussionPapers/DP201404.pdf.

 

TOI (2010), Transport Volumes in Norway 1946-2009, Transportøkonomisk Institutt (Institute of Transport Economics) (www.toi.no); at www.toi.no/article29566-25.html.

 

TrafficLinq (www.trafficlinq.com) is an extensive directory of links covering issues regarding road traffic and transportation. It covers about 1,000 web sites world wide, and has an option to scan all transportation sites with one query.

 

Transport Geography on the Web (www.people.hofstra.edu/geotrans) is an Internet resource to promote access to transport geography information, including articles, maps, figures, and datatsets.

 

Transport India (www.transportindia.in/l_Statistics_home.asp) provides information on infrastructure (railroads, roads and airports). IndiaStats provides information on transportation infrastructure, vehicles and activities, but much of the information must be purchased.

 

TransStats: The Intermodal Transportation Database (www.transtats.bts.gov).

 

Travel Behavior Associates (www.travelbehavior.us) provides extensive analysis of U.S. travel activity.

 

TRB (2011), How We Travel: A Sustainable National Program for Travel Data, Special Report 304, Transportation Research Board (www.trb.org); at http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/sr/sr304.pdf.

 

TRB (2011), Using National Household Travel Survey Data for Transportation Decision Making: A Workshop, Transportation Research Board (www.trb.org); the program at http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/conferences/2011/NHTS1/program.pdf includes hyperlinks to presentations.

 

TRB (2013), Meeting Critical Data Needs for Decision-Making in State and Metropolitan Transportation Agencies: Summary of a Conference, Transportation Research Board (www.trb.org); at http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/conf/CPW9.pdf.

 

TRB (2013), Commuting In America, Transportation Research Board (www.trb.org); at www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/156993.aspx.

 

TRB (2015), Data and Statistics for Valuing Transportation Infrastructure and Transportation's Contribution to the Economy, Transportation Research Circular E-C192, Transportation Research Board (www.trb.org); at http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/circulars/ec192.pdf.  

 

TRICS (www.trics.org) is a consortium of UK regional councils to collect and distribute trip generation data based on thousands of transport surveys. This provides convenient and accurate information on the trip generation of various types of development, and the effectiveness of various mobility management strategies.

 

UITP (2005), Mobility In Cities Database, International Association of Public Transport (www.uitp.org); at www.uitp.org/publications/MCD2-order.

 

UITP (2010), Report On Statistical Indicators Of Public Transport Performance In Sub-Saharan Africa, International Association of Public Transport (www.uitp.org); www.uitp.org/knowledge/projects-details.cfm?id=444.

 

UITP (2014), Local Public Transport Trends In The European Union, International Association of Public Transport (www.uitp.org); at www.uitp.org/statistics-brief-local-public-transport-trends-european-union.

 

UNECU (2008), Annual Bulletin Of Transport Statistics For Europe And North America, Economic Commission For Europe (www.unece.org); at www.unece.org/transport/resources/publications/transport-statistics.html.  

 

USDOT (2013), Status of the Nation’s Highways, Bridges, and Transit: Conditions and Performance, Report To Congress, US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration and the Federal Transit Administration (www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/2013cpr/index.htm).

 

USEPA (2008), EPA's Report on the Environment (ROE), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (http://cfpub.epa.gov/eroe/index.cfm). This report includes information on various environmental impacts, including air and water pollution, and land use.

 

USEPA Transportation Tools (www.epa.gov/climatechange/wycd/tools_transportation.html) provides links to sources of information on transportation activities, emissions and emission reduction strategies. 

 

Vehicle-Related Fatalities Website (www.ite.org/crashes/index.htm), Institute of Transportation Engineers.

 

VTPI (2007), OECD Country Data Summary, assembled by the Victoria Transport Policy Institute (www.vtpi.org); at www.vtpi.org/OECD2004.xls.

 

VTPI (2007), 2009 Urban Transport Performance Spreadsheet, Victoria Transport Policy Institute (www.vtpi.org); at www.vtpi.org/Transit2009.xls.

 

E.O.D. Waygood, T. Chatterton and E. Avineri (2012), Leaders and Laggards in Low Transport CO2 Emissions: The Challenges and Outcomes of Benchmarking Sustainable Urban Transport Systems across Europe, University Transport Studies Group (UTSG) Annual Conference, Aberdeen, Scotland, Jan. 4-5, 2012, at www.carbonaware.eu/resources.html.

 

WBCSD (2001), Mobility 2001: World Mobility at the End of the Twentieth Century and Its Sustainability, World Business Council for Sustainable Development (www.wbcsd.org); at www.wbcsd.org/plugins/DocSearch/details.asp?type=DocDet&ObjectId=MTg1.

 

Working Party for Transport Statistics (www.unece.org/trans/main/wp6/transstatwp6agenda.html) is a professional organization sponsored by the United Nationals Economic Commission for Europe working to harmonize transport statistics at the international level. 

 

World Bank Database (http://data.worldbank.org) provides demographic, economic social and environmental data for 226 countries and regions of the world, with yearly observations since 1960.

 

World Bank Transport Website (www.worldbank.org/transport) includes a variety of transportation information.

 

World Mapper Website (www.sasi.group.shef.ac.uk/worldmapper) is a collection of world maps with territories sized on the map according to the subject of interest.

 

WRDC (2004), Measuring What Matters, Western Rural Development Center (www.extension.usu.edu/wrdc/resources/research/index.htm).


This Encyclopedia is produced by the Victoria Transport Policy Institute to help improve understanding of Transportation Demand Management. It is an ongoing project. Please send us your comments and suggestions for improvement.

 

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