The Hidden Traffic Safety Solution: Public Transportation
This study written by Todd Litman for the American Public Transportation Association shows how public transit can increase safety for users and communities. Public transit travel has about a tenth the traffic casualty (death and injury) rate as automobile travel, and transit-oriented communities have about a fifth the per capita traffic casualty rate as automobile-oriented communities. Yet, these benefits are often overlooked: conventional transit project evaluation seldom considers traffic safety impacts despite their huge value, and traffic safety programs seldom advocate transit improvements, although it can be a very cost-effective traffic safety strategy, considering all benefits and costs.
Urban Sanity: Understanding Urban Mental Health Impacts and How to Create Saner, Happier Cities
This report examines how urban living affects residents' mental health and happiness, and ways to use this information to create saner and happier cities. Some often-cited studies suggest that urban living increases mental illness and unhappiness, but a critical review indicates that much of this research is incomplete and biased, and the issues are complex, involving trade-offs between risk factors. This report examines specific mechanisms by which urban living can affect mental health and happiness, and identities practical strategies that communities and individuals can use to increase their urban mental health and happiness. This analysis suggests that it is possible to create sane and happy cities.
Selling Smart Growth: Communicating The Direct Benefits of More Accessible, Multi-Modal
Locations to Households, Businesses and Governments
This report examines direct benefits to households, businesses and local governments provided by Smart Growth policies, and describes how to better communicate them to consumers, real estate professionals and policy makers.
Response to "Putting People First: An Alternative Perspective with an Evaluation of the NCE Cities 'Trillion Dollar' Report"
My report, Analysis of Public Policies That Unintentionally Encourage and Subsidize Urban Sprawl, evaluated costs of sprawl and benefits of Smart Growth, and identified various policy distortions that result in economically excessive sprawl and automobile travel. Wendell Cox responded with, Putting People First: An Alternative Perspective with an Evaluation of the NCE Cities 'Trillion Dollar' Report, which argues that my study exaggerated sprawl costs and Smart Growth benefits. This document examines and responds to his criticism. Cox uses incomplete data and unjustified assumptions to reach his conclusions; they cannot withstand scrutiny. He incorrectly defines Smart Growth, applies biased analysis, and misrepresents key evidence. In fact, my $1.2 trillion annual estimate reflects a lower-bound value, the actual total costs of sprawl are probably significantly higher.