Using Telecommunications to Substitute for Physical Travel


TDM Encyclopedia

Victoria Transport Policy Institute


Updated 6 September 2019

This chapter describes use of telecommunications to substitute for physical travel, including telecommuting, teleshopping, distance-learning, electronic government, video conferencing, and Internet-based business-to-business activities.



Telework is a general term for the use of telecommunications (telephone, fax, email, websites, video connections, etc.) to substitute for physical travel. As telecommunications service quality improves (particularly high speed Internet), the feasibility of telework increases. Specific examples are listed below.


·         Telecommuting. Employees who work from home rather than a central office. This is particularly appropriate for tasks that involve information management, such as research, accounting, editing, software development and design. With video conference capability, some tasks that require meetings between employees can be performed from home.


·         Satellite office or local work center. Neighborhoods work centers can provide office services to a variety of businesses, reducing the need to travel to a central office.


·         Mobility working. Certain job types, such as field work and traveling sales, require frequent travel, so employees work from their cars, coffee shops and hotels.


·         Video-conferencing. The use of live video connections as a substitute for physical meetings.


·         Distance Learning. Teachers and students can use telecommunications as a substitute for physical meetings. Some colleges and universities offer distance-learning classes and projects.


·         Internet-shopping and Errands. Telecommunications is increasingly used for shopping, banking and other types of errands.


·         Electronic Government. Telecommunications by government agencies to provide services that would otherwise require visiting a government office.


·         Internet Business-to-Business (B2B) refers to Internet interactions between businesses, such as bidding, sales and planning.



How it is Implemented

Telecommuting is usually implemented in response to employee demand or as part of a Commute Trip Reduction program. Other forms of telework, and other applications of telecommunication are implemented by businesses and government agencies to improve services, reduce costs, reduce vehicle travel or help achieve other objectives.


Employers work with managers, employees and labor organizations to develop suitable Telework policies and practices. Informal Telework is common at many companies, so an official policy may simply formalize and support existing practices. The policy should specify:

·         Which job categories are suitable.

·         What is required of employees to qualify.

·         What equipment, support and benefits employers will provide to telecommuting employees.

·         What criteria are to be used to evaluate the performance of employees when they telecommute.

·         How telecommuting schedules are determined, and what is required to change schedules.

·         Periodic review of the arrangement.

·         Model contracts and forms for establishing and tracking telecommuting.



Telework may require changes in management practices that reduce the need to have employees physically together at one time, including more outcome-oriented management practices (evaluating employees based on their performance rather than simply the amount of time they spend at their desk), and increased reliance on electronic communication. If there are unresolved concerns about Telecommuting within an organization it can be helpful to start with a pilot project.



Travel Impacts

How much employees can Telework, and how much Telework reduces motor vehicle travel and impacts such as congestion and energy consumption depend on several factors (Kwan and Dijst, 2007; Handy, Tal and Boarnet 2014; Pirdavani, et al. 2013):


·         Type of job or activity. Telecommuting tends to be most suitable for jobs that primarily manipulate information, such as software programming, keypunching, planning, analysis, and design. Similarly, some products and services are more suitable than others for telework.


·         Telecommunications service quality. Most Telework activities require a certain minimal quality of telecommunications and computers. The potential for telework tends to increase over time as more households have home offices with computers, fax machines, copiers and high-speed Internet services.


·         Employer support. Employees generally need employer support and encouragement Telework.


·         People’s needs and preferences. Not everybody can or wants to Telework. Some people lack suitable home conditions, value social interactions, or are unproductive without direct supervision.


·         Incentives and promotion. Telework may increase if employees are given suitable incentives, such as parking cash out (offering employees who receive subsidized parking its cash equivalent if they telework). Similarly, Internet access to commercial and government services may increase if those options are promoted to residents.



According to some estimates up to 50% of all jobs produce information-related goods that are suitable for Telework (Nilles 1996), but the actual portion of employees who can telecommute appears to be much lower. Many jobs require access to special materials and equipment, or frequent face-to-face meetings, even if their primary output is information that can be transmitted electronically. Not all employees want to Telework, have suitable home conditions or are productive working alone. Many people enjoy face-to-face social interactions.


Teleworking can significantly reduce participating employees’ commute travel. For example, a twice-a-week teleworker reduces commute trips by 40%. Telework tends to be particularly attractive to longer-distance commuters, so VMT reductions tend to be relatively high. For example, a telework program that reduces 10% of vehicle trips may reduce 15% of vehicle mileage if participants have longer than average commutes. One study found that neighborhood telework centers reduce commute VMT by about 50%, but provide smaller emission reductions since even short automobile trips produce heavy pollution due to cold starts (Henderson and Mokhtarian 1996).


However, these commute travel reductions can be offset in various ways, reflecting Rebound Effects:


·         Employees may use teleworking to move further from their worksite, for example, choosing a home or job in a rural area or another city because they know that they only need to commute two or three days a week. This may increase urban sprawl.


·         Teleworkers make additional vehicle trips to run errands that would otherwise have been made during a commute.


·         Vehicles not used for commuting may be driven by other household members.


·         Telecommuters may use additional energy for home heating and cooling, and to power electronic equipment.


·         Improved telecommunications may increase people’s long-distance connections, resulting in more travel. For example, people may make new friends through the Internet, and travel more to visit them.


·         Online shopping and Telework document delivery increase delivery vehicle traffic (Alter 2019).



Some studies find net travel reductions. A survey of 400 U.S. Teleworkers indicated that Telework reduced vehicle travel and average of 30 miles per telecommute day (Nilles 1996). It estimated that if 10% of the workforce Telecommutes on any given day, total vehicle travel would decline by 4%. Mokhtarian (1997) concludes that a more realistic estimate is that 1-2% of vehicle travel could be reduced by telework, and long-term impacts may be even smaller if it encourages more urban dispersion. Mokhtarian (2000) estimates that 6.1% of the California workforce may currently telecommute 1.2 days a week on average, with the result that 1.5% of the workforce may be telecommuting on any given day. The vehicle-miles eliminated by this level of Telecommuting constitute at most 1.1% of total household vehicle travel. Taking into account rebound effects (additional non-commute travel and longer commute distances), it is estimated that the net reduction is 0.6% or less of household travel. Reductions in the future could be smaller as commute distances of Telecommuters fall closer to the average and as the stimulation effect grows.


A study of telecommuting travel impact based on 2001 and 2009 National Household Travel Survey data concluded that “…policies that promote telecommuting may indeed increase, rather than decrease, people’s travel demand, regardless of the size of the MSA. This seems to contradict what telecommuting policies are designed for.” (Zhu et al., 2018) Similarly, analysis of 2005–2012 British National Travel Survey data found that among single-worker households, higher teleworking frequencies are associated with more travel by all modes, particularly by car, but found no significant association for two-worker households. This supports the hypothesis that households often use telework to choose more isolated, automobile-oriented locations, so commute travel reductions are offset by increases in other vehicle trips.


The travel impacts of other types of Telework are equally difficult to predict. A survey by Connected Nation (a nonprofit advocacy organization) found that broadband users report driving an average of 67 fewer miles per month, or about 800 fewer annual miles, because of their online activity (CN 2008). However, Tele-shopping and Electronic Government transactions may increase the number of commercial and government transactions that occur without reducing physical travel to stores and government agencies. B2B transactions may reduce some business trips, but may encourage businesses to use more distant suppliers, resulting in longer travel distances for freight delivery, or when meetings between staff are needed.


Some studies suggest that telecommunications and transportation are complementary, particularly over the long run: telecommunications improvements tend to stimulate travel by reducing costs and increasing opportunities (Plaut 1997; Choo and Mokhtarian 2007). For example, many consumers are using the Internet to find lower-cost airfares so they can travel more. It is therefore inappropriate to assume that electronic communications always substitutes for physical travel. Telecommunications can have complex and difficult to predict impacts on overall vehicle travel. For Telework to provide significant vehicle travel reductions it must be implemented in conjunction with other TDM strategies that provide an incentive to reduce driving, such as Commute Financial Incentives, Road Pricing, Parking Pricing, Parking Management, Distance-Based Fees, Pay As You Drive Insurance and Fuel Tax Increases.


Table 1          Travel Impact Summary




Reduces total traffic.


Reduces commute trips, but may increase other vehicle travel.

Reduces peak period traffic.


Reduces commute trips.

Shifts peak to off-peak periods.


May increase non-commute trips.

Shifts automobile travel to alternative modes.



Improves access, reduces the need for travel.



Increased ridesharing.



Increased public transit.



Increased cycling.



Increased walking.



Increased Telework.



Reduced freight traffic.



Rating from 3 (very beneficial) to –3 (very harmful). A 0 indicates no impact or mixed impacts.



Benefits and Costs

Since Telework reduces commute trips it can significantly reduce congestion and parking costs. Telework can provide consumer benefits by increasing Transportation Options, convenience and financial savings. It is highly valued by many employees and can increase their productivity and job satisfaction. Many employers find that it increases staff recruitment and retention, and can help deal with problems, such as employees with disabilities or other special needs. Pratt (1999) describes a variety of benefits from Telework, particularly related to employee satisfaction and productivity. Modeling by Pirdavani, et al. (2013) predicts that if 5% of current commuters shifted to teleworking in Flanders, Belgium, total vehicle crashes would decline approximately 2.5%.


If Telework increases non-commute trips or land use dispersion, road safety and environmental benefits are reduced or eliminated. Telework may increase community Livability by reducing vehicle traffic and allowing more people to work and shop from home, particularly in physically-isolated communities. It can improve Accessibility for people with mobility constraints. It is relatively Affordable compared with other transportation modes, typically costing individuals a few hundred dollars for a computer, plus Internet service of several dollars per month, although this may be unaffordable to some potential users.


Costs include increased administrative and management responsibilities, and more difficult evaluation of employee productivity. Some employees find Telework difficult and isolating. Telecommuting may reduce staff coverage and interaction, and make meetings difficult to schedule. It may require additional expenses for computers and telecommunications, and additional home heating or cooling expenses. It may increase sprawl.


Table 2          Benefit Summary




Congestion Reduction


Is particularly effective at reducing commute trips.

Road & Parking Savings


Reduces vehicle travel and trips.

Consumer Savings


Reduces vehicle travel.

Transport Choice


Increases transport choice and convenience.

Road Safety


Reduces vehicle travel.

Environmental Protection


Reduces vehicle travel.

Efficient Land Use


Can encourage more dispersed land use.

Community Livability


Reduces vehicle travel.

Rating from 3 (very beneficial) to –3 (very harmful). A 0 indicates no impact or mixed impacts.



Equity Impacts

Telework is only suitable for some types of work and some employees. Some employees may feel left out, or burdened when colleagues Telecommute. Teleworking can improve employment opportunities for some disadvantaged groups (for example, by allowing people with disabilities that make commuting difficult, and residents of economically disadvantaged, rural communities to have better access to jobs), but labor organizations are concerned that it could lead to employee abuse (such as “electronic sweatshops” for keypunch operators). Lower-income households that cannot afford Internet access may be unable to use telecommunications services, and may be disadvantaged if physical services (such as local banks and printed documents) become less available. Telework can help provide some types of Basic Access (such as some types of education, employment, shopping and government services).


Table 3          Equity Summary




Treats everybody equally.


Some employee categories may be excluded.

Individuals bear the costs they impose.


No significant impact.

Progressive with respect to income.


Mixed. Increases transport choices, but some concerns exist about labor abuse.

Benefits transportation disadvantaged.


Increases employment choices for non-drivers.

Improves basic mobility.


Can improve access to education and employment.

Rating from 3 (very beneficial) to –3 (very harmful). A 0 indicates no impact or mixed impacts.




Telework is appropriate in any geographic area. In urban and suburban areas it helps reduce congestion. In rural areas it improves access to employment and services. Telework can be encouraged by federal, state and regional governments through TDM Programs, but is implemented by individual businesses.


Table 4          Application Summary





Large urban region.


Federal government.


High-density, urban.


State/provincial government.


Medium-density, urban/suburban.


Regional government.




Municipal/local government.


Low-density, rural.


Business Associations/TMA.


Commercial center.


Individual business.


Residential neighborhood.




Resort/recreation area.


Neighborhood association.






Ratings range from 0 (not appropriate) to 3 (very appropriate).




Increases transport choice.



Relationships With Other TDM Strategies

Telework is often promoted by TDM Programs, Commute Trip Reduction programs and Transportation Management Associations. It is most effective at achieving TDM objectives if matched with disincentives to drive, including and supported by Commute Financial Incentives, Road Pricing, Parking Pricing, Parking Management, Distance-Based Fees, and Fuel Tax Increases.




Telework can involve governments, businesses, employers, employees and labor organizations.



Barriers To Implementation

Telework can face institutional and technical barriers. Telework requires changing organizational and management practices. It may increase equipment costs, for example, by requiring portable computers rather than desktop models, or additional telecommunications services. There is sometimes opposition to telework programs from labor organizations concerned about negative impacts on vulnerable employees. Many residential communities forbid working at home, which may make telecommuting technically illegal, although such regulations are generally not enforced.



Best Practices

Organizations such as the International Telework Association, and various publications provide guidance on developing telecommuting programs. Best practices include:


·         Include Telework as one component of a comprehensive Commute Trip Reduction program.


·         Develop a formal policy and contract between employees and managers for Telework. This should identify which job categories are suitable for telework, and what employees must do to quality for Telework.


·         Develop appropriate performance measures for employees who Telework.



Wit and Humor

Three engineers were in a car when they came to a light and stopped. The motor sputtered and choked a bit and then died. The chemical engineer said, “I think it’s not getting enough gas. Maybe we ought to check the fuel line.”

The electrical engineer said, “No, it sounded to me like it’s not getting enough juice. Maybe we ought to check the plugs.”

The third, a computer engineer, said, “Why don’t we all get out of the car, and then get back in again, and see if it won’t start up.”



Examples and Case Studies

Puget Sound Telecommuting Demonstration Project

The Puget Sound Telecommuting Demonstration Project was initiated in 1990 by the Washington State Energy Office (WSEO). It included 25 public agencies and private firms in the Seattle area. A conference held in 1989 was used to recruit participant employers. These groups signed a memorandum of understanding that outlined the projects polices and procedures. WSEO staff provided assistance to employers in establishing telecommuting programs. After two years the project found these results:


·         Most participants telecommute an average of one day a week.


·         Benefits by teleworkers included increased job satisfaction, enhanced performance, and greater flexibility. Some concerns were raised over job security.


·         Reasons given by participants who discontinued telecommuting included not liking it, concerns about being less visible in the office, problems in the office and lack of adequate equipment.


·         Supervisors generally rated telecommuters’ performance the same or better as days spent in the office. A few cases of declining performance were noted.


·         An average of 26 fewer annual commute trips were recorded. Approximately 61% of participants drove to work, 18% carpooled, and 17 rode transit. The results indicate that each teleworker reduced an average of 1,900 annual kilometers of vehicle travel.



First Interstate Bank

First Interstate Bank employs approximately 3,500 people in the Los Angeles area. It established a telecommuting program in 1991. The objectives of the program include increased productivity and flexibility for employees.


Participants must have worked for the bank at least one year. An employee submits a formal request to telecommute, which includes an equipment checklist. A signed agreement is used to ensure that all parties understand the policies, procedures and expectations. Most telecommuters work from home, but a few work at telework centers. Some equipment is provided by the bank, and business-related telephone calls are reimbursed.


Response to the program has been positive for managers and telecommuters. Benefits noted by supervisors include increased productivity and less time off. Telecommuters report fewer distractions and greater flexibility in balancing home and family responsibilities.



Commuter Challenge Program (

The Commuter Challenge website has detailed descriptions of more than two-dozen Puget Sound area employers that offer telework. Each case study describes the type of employer, the policies and resources they offer, the program’s effectiveness, and feedback from administrators who manage the programs. The following employers are included:



Smart Work Centers (

 Tata Communications, a leading provider of the new world of communications, announced the launch of its TelePresence rooms available for public use in the United States and United Kingdom, linking to additional public rooms in Mumbai, Bangalore and Chennai, India. The collaboration between Tata Communications and Cisco is the first managed telepresence service in the world to deliver public and private Cisco TelePresence rooms to companies globally. This new service will allow companies and individuals to use Cisco TelePresence for one-off meetings.


Tata Communications is working with Cisco, Taj Hotels owner, the Indian Hotels Company Limited, and the Confederation of India Industry (CII) to offer public telepresence facilities which are available for rent on an hourly basis. The first phase of public rooms was launched in India in July at the Taj Hotels in Mumbai and Bangalore, and CII offices in Bangalore and Chennai. Tata plans to make 100 rooms available globally by the end of 2009.

Cisco today also introduced a dedicated public Cisco TelePresence suites facility in Santa Clara, California.


"With this innovative service offering, Tata Communications is not only adding value to its business and that of its customers, but revolutionising business altogether," said Tata Communications, Chief Operating Officer, Vinod Kumar. "This groundbreaking innovation enables our global customers to join a wider ecosystem of users via public access rooms allowing them to not only to communicate virtually in real-time but providing a cost-effective and eco-friendly solution."




TRW uses telecommuting throughout its offices and plants, including more than 1,000 employees in Orange County, California. The telecommuting program is governed by guidelines that identify the responsibilities of all groups and establishes ground rules for participating in the program. One issue for TRW, which does defense and aerospace work, is information access and security for telecommuters. To address these concerns the company developed enhanced local area network connections for telecommuters’ homes. The program has been well received by staff and management. Benefits include reduced stress, increased productivity and reduced vehicle travel.



Survey Shows Desire For Urban Life, Interaction (

SAN FRANCISCO‹A new survey by The New Colonist, a web magazine about city living, shows that technology provides people more choice of where to live, and many are choosing to live in cities.


The survey showed that if respondents were offered the ability to work at home, more than half (53 percent) would choose to move to a city. Thirty percent said they would move to the country and just 12 percent would move to the suburbs. Just over half said technology had already influenced where they live. Respondents also said the Internet has made it easier to live in both the city and in rural areas and has made more products and services available to city dwellers.


“It seems clear from these results that the internet and new technology has provided consumers in both urban and rural areas more choice,” said Eric Miller, editor of The New Colonist. “In rural areas where there aren’t so many stores, and in cities where those without cars find shopping for price, and shopping for big-ticket items difficult, the internet has provided more options.”


The survey showed the internet also had an impact on life outside of work. An astonishing 84 percent said life outside of work had been influenced by technology. More than half said the internet has resulted in more interaction with people. Sixty-five percent, however said they did not prefer shopping and working online to shopping in stores and working at the office.


“People are continuing to recognize the value and benefits technology can bring them,” Miller said. “But like the suburbs, the online world can be somewhat of an isolating experience.  The desire to live in urban areas and the desire to work and shop in real places may symbolize a desire for real-time human interaction. As more and more of the day is spent online, offline experiences become even more important.”


Respondents also asked if city residents were more or less likely to shop online.  About half said more, and half said less. When asked if technology had made where they are less or more important, almost half said no effect, with 28 percent each saying more and less.



Analyzing Telecommuting Demand and Benefits (Robert and Borjesson, 2006)

Marcus Robert and Maria Borjesson surveyed employees at an Ericsson Corporation district office concerning telecommuting and flexible offices (i.e., employees share workstations rather than having assigned desks and Telework as frequently as they want). Of all respondents, 53% report that they would like to telecommute more often. Obstacles included constraints on the type of work performed, inadequate telecommunications at home (slow computers or Internet service), and concerns over reduced interactions with co-workers. The analysis found that Telework frequency would increase with increased with financial incentives: a monthly payment of 500 Swedish Krona (about $75) would motivate about 40% of employees to choose the flexible office arrangement. At this rate, in a 500 employee office, 200 would choose the flexible office, allowing workstations for these employees to be reduced by 50%. In the case study analyzed, the resulting office rent savings would cover the financial incentives. In addition, they expect participating employees to be more productive.



State of Arizona Telecommuting Program (USDOT 1997)

Arizona state agencies have allowed telecommuting since a pilot project was established in 1989. The program includes policies and information materials to promote telecommuting within all state agencies. The program has expanded, and has a goal that 15% of state agency personnel participate in some type of telecommuting. An evaluation performed in 1996 found:


·         Senior managers tend to be positive toward telecommuting, due to their perception of increased work efficiency and productivity.


·         Supervisors were also supportive of telecommuting, due to the perception that telecommuters have fewer disruptions and are better able to work during their peak performance times. Improved staff morale among telecommuters was also noted.


·         Both telecommuters and non-telecommuting state employees indicated support for the program, due to increased productivity, job satisfaction and flexibility.


·         A public opinion survey indicated general support toward telecommuting.



References and Resources For More Information


Joãode Abreu e Silva and Patrícia C. Melob (2018), “Does Home-Based Telework Reduce Household Total Travel? A Path Analysis Using Single and Two Worker British Households,” Journal of Transport Geography, Vol. 73, pp. 148-162 (; at


Anne Aguilara (2008), Business Travel and Mobile Workers, Transportation Research A, Vol. 42, No. 8 (, pp. 1109-1116.


Lloyd Alter (2019), How Online Shopping is Making Congestion and Pollution Worse, The Treehugger (; at


Association for Commuter Transportation ( is a non-profit organization supporting TDM programs.


Best Workplaces for Commuters ( is a program sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Transportation to recognize employers that provide outstanding commuter benefits. The website has a variety of resources, including Telework Programs (


Sally Cairns, et al (2004), Smarter Choices - Changing the Way We Travel, UK Department for Transport ( This comprehensive study provides detailed evaluation of the potential travel impacts and costs of various mobility management strategies. Includes numerous case studies.


Prithwiraj (Raj) Choudhury, Cirrus Foroughi and Barbara Larson (2019), Live and Work from Anywhere: Geographic Flexibility and Productivity Effects at the United States Patent Office, Working Paper 19-054, Harvard Business School (; at; summarized at


Sangho Choo and Patricia L. Mokhtarian (2007), “Telecommunications And Travel Demand And Supply: Aggregate Structural Equation Models For The US,” Transportation Research A, Vol. 41, No. 1 (, January 2007, pp. 4-18.


CN (2008), The Economic Impact of Stimulating Broadband Nationally, Connected Nation (; at


Heather Contrino and Nancy McGuckin (2006), An Exploration of the Internet’s Effect on Travel, Travel Behavior Associates (; at


DfT (2011), Alternatives to Travel: Next Steps, U.K. Department for Transport (; at


European Telework Online (


Global Workplace Analytics ( provides statistics and guidance for more flexible and responsive workplace designs and policies, including telework.


Susan Handy, Gil Tal and Marlon G. Boarnet (2014), Policy Brief on the Impacts of Telecommuting Based on a Review of the Empirical Literature, for Research on Impacts of Transportation and Land Use-Related Policies, California Air Resources Board (


Dennis Henderson and Patricia Mokhtarian (1996), “Impacts of Center-Based Telecommuting on Travel and Emissions: Analysis of the Puget Sound Demonstration Project,” Transportation Research D, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 29-45.


Home Computing Initiatives ( is a website that describes how employers can implement Home Computing Initiatives.


HOP International (2002), The Impact of Information and Communications Technologies on Travel and Freight Distribution Patterns: Review and Assessment of Literature, Department for Transport, Local Government and the Regions (


International Telework Association (


JALA (2004), Do-It-Yourself Home Telework Benefit/Cost Analysis, JALA International (


Michael Patrick Kane (2010), “Devising Public Transport Systems For Twenty-First Century Economically Productive Cities - The Proposed Knowledge Ring For Perth,” Australian Planner (, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 75-84.


Mei-Po Kwan and Martin Dijst (2007), “Interaction Between ICT (Information and Communications Technologies) and Human Activity-Travel Behavior,” Special Issue,

Transportation Research Record A, Vol. 41, Issue 2 (, February 2007, pp. 121-204.


Patricia Mokhtarian (1991), “Defining Telecommuting,” Transportation Research Record, 1305, TRB (, pp. 273-281.


Patricia Mokhtarian (1997), “Now That Travel Can Be Virtual, Will Congestion Virtually Disappear?,” Scientific American, Oct. 1997, p. 93.


Patricia L. Mokhtarian (2003), “Telecommunications and Travel: The Case for Complementarity,” Journal of Industrial Ecology, University of Davis Institute of Transportation Studies (


Jack Nilles (1996), “What Does Telework Really Do To Us?,” World Transport Policy and Practice, Vol. 2, No. 1/2, 1996, pp. 15-23.


Ali Pirdavani, Tom Brijs, Tom Bellemans and Geert Wets (2013), Investigating Different Road Safety Implications of Two TDM Policy Measures: Fuel-Cost Increase and Teleworking, presented at the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents, Beijing, China; at

Pnina Ohanna Plaut (1997), “Telecommunications Vs. Transportation,” Access, No. 10 (, Spring, pp. 21-25.


Joanne H. Pratt (1999), 1999 Telework America National Telework Survey, The International Telework Association & Council (


Markus Robert and Maria Borjesson (2006), “Company Incentives and Tools for Promoting Telecommuting,” Environment and Behavior, Vol. 38, No. 4, July 2006, pp. 526-549.


Kevan R. Shafizadeh, Debbie A. Niemeier, Patricia L. Mokhtarian and Ilan Salomon (2007), The Costs and Benefits of Telecommuting: An Evaluation of Macro Scale Literature (1998, 2000, 2007), University of California Davis, Journal of Infrastructure Systems; at:  


The Smith Institute Flexible Work Website ( provides information on flexible work arrangements.


Telecommunications and Travel Research Program (, University of California at Davis. This website includes a variety of reports on telework.


Telework Coalition ( works to support virtual, mobile, and distributed work activity.


Telework Research Network ( is an independent research organization that specializes in modeling the economic, societal, and environmental benefits of telework and workplace flexibility for companies and communities. It produced the following reports:

·         The State of Telework in the US – Five year trend and forecast (June 2011)

·         The Bottom Line on Telework (Canada) (May 2011)

·         The Shifting Nature of Work In The UK—The Bottom Line Benefits of Telework (May 2011)

·         Results-Based Management—The Key To Unlocking Talent, Increasing Productivity (September 2010)

·         Workshifting (Telework) Benefits: The Bottom Line (US) (May 2010)



Teletrips ( promotes the benefits of Telework and other TDM strategies.


USDOT (1997), Successful Telecommuting Programs in the Public and Private Sector; A Report to Congress, U.S. Department of Transportation (


P. Zhu, et al. (2018), “Metropolitan Size and the Impacts of Telecommuting on Personal Travel,” Transportation, Vol. 45(2), pp. 385-414.

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