Traffic Safety Strategies


TDM Encyclopedia

Victoria Transport Policy Institute


Updated 28 November 2018

This chapter describes various strategies for improving traffic safety and public health. For more information see the report, Safe Travels: Evaluating Mobility Management Traffic Safety Impacts.




Traffic crashes cause deaths, injuries, pain, disabilities, lost productivity, grief, material damage, and transportation decisions can affect personal safety (risk of being attacked) and aerobic fitness. Changes in travel patterns affect traffic risk and public health in many ways, as summarized below (Safety Impacts of TDM).


·         Strategies that Reduce Traffic Speeds, such as Traffic Calming and Complete Streets design practices, can significantly reduce per-mile crash frequency and severity where they are applied, and encourage reductions in total vehicle travel.


·         Strategies that reduce traffic congestion tend to reduce the frequency of crashes but can increase the severity of those crashes that do occur. Strategies that shift automobile travel time, route or destination but do not reduce total vehicle travel probably do little to increase road safety or public health, and may increase injuries and fatalities.


·         Strategies that shift travel from driving to transit and ridesharing tend to provide medium to large road safety benefits.


·         Strategies that shift automobile travel to nonmotorized modes may increase risk per mile for the people who change mode, but this can be offset by reduced risk to other road users, reduced trip length, and Health benefits from aerobic exercise.


·         More efficient road, parking, insurance and fuel pricing tends to reduce total vehicle travel, which reduces total traffic risk (Litman 2012).


·         TDM strategies that reduce total personal travel can provide large safety benefits. Each 1% reduction in reduced motor vehicle travel typically reduces total crashes and casualties by 1.4% to 1.8%.


·         Strategies that create more Accessible land use patterns and more balanced transportation systems can provide large reductions in per capita crash costs and increase aerobic health.


·         Some TDM strategies improve personal security or promote cycle safety.



Some transportation improvement projects can have unanticipated negative safety impacts. Elvik (2001) points out that, although highway capacity expansion is often justified based on projected crash reductions, such projects must fulfill certain criteria in order to really improve road safety. “First of all, the new road must not lead to increased speed, which entails more stringent speed regulation. The new road must not encourage more traffic, which also means more accidents.”



Strategies That Improve Traffic Safety

The figure below illustrates the relationships among various traffic safety strategies. The two major categories are Engineering, which involves safer vehicles and roadways, and Behavior Changes, which include mobility management (changes in travel mode, route, destination, frequency and speed), more cautious driving, and actions by vehicle occupants such as using seat belts, child restraints and helmets.


Figure 1          Traffic Safety Strategies

This figure illustrates the relationships among various traffic safety strategies.



Wilson and Lipinski (2004) describe many of the engineering strategies for improving traffic safety. TDM strategies that tend to improve traffic safety are described below (also see IDOT 2002).



Traffic Speed Reductions

Strategies that reduce traffic speeds can prevent many collisions, and reduce the severity of damages and injuries that result when crashes occur. Such strategies can provide significant traffic safety benefits, particularly on urban streets and on highways with adjacent commercial and residential development. However, some of these benefits may be offset if speed reductions in one area cause traffic to shift to other areas.


Vollpracht (2010) describes accident and pollution exposure risks that often develop in lower-income countries as informal commercial and residential districts develop along highways. He recommends a combination traffic speed control, access management and better land use planning to reduce these risks.


For information on traffic speed management programs see:

·         U.S. Federal Highway Administration Speed Management Information (

·         U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Speed Management Information (

·         U.S. Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (


TDM Strategies

Traffic Calming, Street Reclaiming, Access Management, Vehicle Use Restrictions, Streetscaping.



Optimal Street Widths

Wider traffic lanes provide give vehicles more room to avoid collisions, but they increase traffic speeds, which increases crash risk and severity. Annual crash rates per vehicle-mile tend to be lowest for relatively narrow (about 10-foot) lane widths, and are highest on wider, lower volume, straight streets with higher traffic speeds (Swift 1998; Zegeer, et al. 1994; CTRE 2006; AARP 2009; Dumbaugh and Rae 2009). Urban streets with 24-foot curb-to-curb widths appear to have the lowest accident rates.


TDM Strategies

New Urbanism, Traffic Calming, Road Space Reallocation



Mobility Substitutes

Mobility substitutes include telecommunications and delivery services that substitute for physical travel and reduce vehicle trips. This tends to increase safety, although in many cases there are Rebound Effects, such as the tendency of telecommuters to make special trips for errands that they would otherwise perform while commuting, and to move farther from their worksite.


TDM Strategies

Telework, Freight Transport Management



Land Use and Transportation System Changes

Land use patterns affect per capita automobile travel (Land Use Impacts on Transportation). Automobile-oriented land use patterns tend to increase per capita automobile travel, which tend to increase traffic crashes and causalities.


Automobile-oriented transportation systems are also associated with reduced exercise, while strategies that increase walking and cycling can provide significant health benefits (Frank and Engelke 2000). Many of the Active Community Environment factors advocated by the U.S. Center for Disease Control, such more walkable communities and incentives for reduced automobile travel, are supported by TDM (Killingsworth and Lamming, 2001).


TDM Strategies

Smart Growth, Location Efficient Development, New Urbanism, Transit Oriented Development, Access Management, Traffic Calming, Vehicle Restrictions, Carfree Planning, Least Cost Planning, Institutional Reforms.



Mode Shifting

TDM strategies that shift travel mode can have a variety of safety and health impacts.



Shifting from driving to public transit tends to reduce crash risk per passenger trip because professional drivers tend to have lower crash rates, bus occupants are safer than automobile occupants, and because it reduces total vehicle traffic (Litman, 2004).


TDM Strategies:

Transit Improvements, Shuttle Services, HOV Priority, Park & Ride, Bike/Transit Integration, Transit Oriented Development



Ridesharing tends to reduce overall crash risk by reducing total vehicle traffic. For example, two people who carpool rather than drive alone bear about the same level of internal risk (assuming that their driving skills and vehicles are equally safe), but reduce risk to others by using one vehicle rather than two.


TDM Strategies

Ridesharing, HOV Priority, Park & Ride


Nonmotorized Transport

Shifting from driving to nonmotorized travel (walking and cycling) tends to have mixed safety impacts. Nonmotorized travel tends to have relatively high per-mile crash rates, but nonmotorized travel imposes minimal risk to other road users, and non-motorized trips are often significantly shorter than automobile trips they replace (for example, a consumer may choose between walking to a local store or driving to a more distant supermarket). Experienced adult cyclists tend to have much lower per-mile crash rates than young, inexperienced cyclists. In addition, nonmotorized travel provides health benefits that offset crash risk.


A number of targeted strategies and programs can reduce crash risk to nonmotorized travelers (Pucher and Dijkstra 2000; Retting, Ferguson and McCartt 2003; Markowitz, et al. 2006; Nabors, et al. 2007). Some TDM programs include planning, education and marketing components that encourage safety for non-motorized modes. Excellent safety program resources are now available. These may include:

·         Pedestrian safety audits that identify problems and safety improvement strategies (Nabors, et al. 2007)

·         Pedestrian and cycling classes can be integrated with Commute Trip Reduction and School Transport Management programs, personal safety and fitness, and physical education programs.

·         Adult cycling skills classes can be taught at recreational facilities, or provided through local traffic safety associations.

·         Public education campaigns targeting motorists, cyclists, and pedestrians covering cyclists and pedestrians rights and safety skills.



Although many communities have some programs, few communities have enough pedestrian and cycling programs to educate a significant portion of the population. Responsibility for such programs is fragmented, and there is seldom stable funding.


Nonmotorized Transport Safety Resources


Khaled Abbas, Ibrahim Mabrouk, and Khaled El-Araby, “School Children as Pedestrians in Cairo: Proxies for Improving Road Safety,” Journal of Transport Engineering, July/Aug. 1996, pp. 291-299.


Marvin Aoki and Lawrence Moore, “KIDSAFE: A Young Pedestrian Safety Study,” ITE Journal, Sept. 1996, pp. 36-45.


Children on the Move ( provides information on children’s transportation issues.


International Police Mountain Bike Association ( is an organization of police officers who use bicycles for patrol.


Kerbcraft; Smart Strategies for Pedestrian Safety, UK Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions (, 1998. A curriculum for teaching children how to cross streets where there is no traffic signal.


Charles Komanoff (1999), Killed by Automobile, Right of Way (


League of American Bicyclists Education Programs ( provides a variety of resources.


Dan Nabors, et al. (2007), Pedestrian Road Safety Audit Guidelines and Prompt Lists, Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (, Federal Highway Administration Office of Safety; at


NYC (2010), The New York City Pedestrian Safety Study & Action Plan, New York City Department of Transportation (; at


Perils for Pedestrians ( is a cable television series promoting awareness of issues affecting pedestrian safety. Their website includes advocacy tips and links to other pedestrian organizations.


Problems of Attention and Visual Search in the Context of Child Pedestrian,  Behaviour, UK DETR, (, 1999. 


Pedestrian/Bicyclist Resource Kit, FHWA (


Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Analysis Tool, FHWA-RD-99-192, FHWA (202-493-3315;


Richard A. Retting, Susan A. Ferguson and Anne T. McCartt, “A Review of Evidence-Based Traffic Engineering Measures Designed to Reduce Pedestrian-Motor Vehicle Crashes,” American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 93, No. 9 (, Sept. 2003, pp. 1456-1463.


R.A. Schieber and N.J. Thompson, “Developmental risk factors for childhood pedestrian injuries” Injury Prevention, Vol. 2, 1996, pp. 228-236.


Speed Kills, The Benefits of Slower Speeds, and Why Reduce Speeds, UK Anti-speed Campaign (


Study Addresses Safety Of Children On Their Way To And From School,  CUTR, (, 1998.


Highway Safety Research Center ( at the University of North Carolina provides a variety of traffic safety resources, including many related to nonmotorized travel.



TDM Strategies

Pedestrian and Cycling Improvements, Pedestrian and Cycling Encouragement, Universal Design, Bike/Transit Integration, Traffic Calming, TDM Marketing



Vehicle Mileage Reductions

Reduced per capita mileage tends to reduce per capita crash rates. All else being equal, each 1% reduction in a vehicle’s mileage should reduce its chances of having a crash by 1%, and also reduce crash risk to other road users. Since about 70% of crashes involve multiple vehicles, each 1.0% mileage reduction should reduce total crash costs by 1.7% if other factors are constant. The empirical evidence also indicates that broad reductions in driving reduce overall crash rates.


TDM Strategies

Commute Trip Reduction, Distance-Based Charges, Parking Pricing, Road Pricing, Telework, Freight Transport Management, Vehicle Restrictions and various other TDM strategies.


Congestion Pricing Safety Impacts (London, 2004)

The central London congestion charging scheme was introduced on 17 February 2003, with the primary aim of reducing traffic congestion in and around the charging zone (London, 2004). First year results indicate that the program has reduced accidents:

·         Total vehicle–kilometres reduced by 12%, car traffic reduced by 30%, crashes declined 28%.

·         Moped and motorbike travel increased 10 –15%, with 4% fewer crashes.

·         Bicycle travel increased 20%, with a 7% reduction in crashes.

·         Crashes involving pedestrians declined 6%.

·         Increased bus journey time reliability by up to 60%.

·         No evidence of any overall increase in road traffic outside the zone.

·         Subjective improvements in noise and air quality.



Pay-As-You-Drive Vehicle Insurance

Pay-As-You-Drive converts vehicle insurance premiums from a fixed cost into a variable cost. It incorporates all existing rating factors so lower-risk motorists pay less per mile than higher-risk motorists. This price structure gives higher-risk motorists a greater incentive to reduce their driving than lower-risk motorists. For example, a motorist who currently pays annual premiums of $375 would pay 3¢ per mile, and is likely to reduce mileage by about 6%. A higher-risk motorist who currently pays annual premiums of $1,250 would pay 10¢ per mile, and so could be expected to reduce mileage by about 18%. To the degree that insurance companies can accurately identify motorists who are higher risk per mile, this should provide an additional reduction in crash rates. As a result, Pay-As-You-Drive Insurance is predicted to reduce mileage an average of 10% among participants, while crash costs and fatalities decline 15% or more.


TDM Strategies

Pay-As-You-Drive Vehicle Insurance, Distance-Based Charges



Reduced Use of Mobile Telephones While Driving

Numerous studies show that crash rates increase significantly when motorists are using mobile telephones while driving (Loeb and Clarke, 2009). Policies that prohibit or discourage mobile phone use while driving (which could include legal policies that make talking on a telephone a contributing factor toward traffic crash liability), or education programs that discourage use of mobile telephones while driving, may provide significant safety benefits. Although, cell phone availability reduces emergency response time after a crash, providing safety benefits (a point often made by mobile telephone proponents) this is irrelevant since prohibiting telephone use while driving does not preclude having a telephone available for emergency use.



Improved Traffic Law Enforcement

Various traffic law enforcement strategies can increase compliance with safety-related traffic laws, including increased observance of speeds, yielding and traffic controls (Blakey 2003). New technologies allow fleet operators and parents to monitor driving patterns and identify those that are relatively risky (



Graduated Licenses

Williams (2003) describes graduated drivers license policies, which place various restrictions on younger drivers, such as prohibitions on driving late at night or with multiple passengers. Crash reductions of 20-30% are reported from these programs.



Other Strategies

Elvik (2003) identifies many traffic safety strategies that he calculates can be cost effective when all benefits are considered. He predicts that current safety strategies will reduce crash fatalities 10-15%, but that 50-60% fatality reductions are possible if all cost-effective safety strategies were implemented.



Strategies With Mixed Safety Impacts


Travel Time and Route Shifts

TDM strategies that shift vehicle travel from peak to off-peak periods or from congested highways to alternative routes have mixed safety impacts. Shifting vehicle trips to less congested roadway conditions can reduce crashes, but the crashes do occur tend to be more severe due to higher travel speeds. As a result, the road safety impacts of TDM strategies that shift travel times and routes can vary, depending on specific circumstances, and are difficult to predict.


Many strategy’s safety impacts depend on how and under what circumstances they are implemented. For example, Road Pricing, Vehicle Restrictions and Carfree Planning that are applied on just some roads or during certain times may simply shift automobile travel times and routes, providing little safety benefit, but if implemented with other complementary TDM strategies that improve transportation alternatives and provide incentives to reduce overall automobile travel, there may be significant safety benefits.


TDM Strategies

Flextime, Congestion Pricing, Parking Pricing, Vehicle Restrictions, Carfree Planning.



Access Management

Access Management is a set of roadway design principles intended to increase traffic efficiency by reducing the number of driveways and intersections on major roads, and clustering development. This tends to reduce per-mile crash rates, improve walking and cycling conditions, and encourage transit and ridesharing. If it increases vehicle traffic volumes and speeds, it may increase total crashes and crash severity. If it supports more efficient land use and mode shifting, it can reduce total road risk.


Demosthenes (2003) finds that urban arterial crash rates are determined largely by the frequency and design of access points that serve land development and local streets. Access locations account for more than 60% of vehicular crashes in urban areas. He estimates that incorporating access management strategies when considering local street plans and development site plans can significantly reduce crash rates, as well as providing mobility and community livability benefits. Failing to limit access points and creating community or regional plans results in more frequent intersections, the need for many traffic signals and frequent driveways, establishes an almost permanent high-level crash rate that will plague the community for decades. He calculates that modern access management strategies can prevent more than 1,500 crashes in a 3-mile corridor in a five-year period.

TDM Strategies:

Access Management



Strategies that Improve Public Health

Some analysis indicates that the potential Health and Fitness benefits from policies and programs that increase active transportation (walking and cycling) may be even greater than potential benefits from crash reductions. More than ten times as many people are disabled and die from cardiovascular diseases as from traffic crashes, so even a small improvement in aerobic fitness can provide large public health benefits. Many TDM strategies support and encourage nonmotorized transportation, either directly or by creating more Livable communities where walking and cycling is feasible. Universal Design can be particularly important for improving active transportation opportunities for people with disabilities.


TDM Strategies

Bicycle and Pedestrian Encouragement, Traffic Calming, Universal Design, School Transport Management, Address Security Concerns, Street Reclaiming, Pedestrian and Bicycle Improvements, Smart Growth, New Urbanism, .



Strategies that Improve Personal Security

Some TDM strategies affect people’s exposure to personal security threats. Several TDM strategies can help increase personal security. As more responsible citizens walk, cycle and use transit, their presence in the street and other public areas tends to reduce the overall risk of personal assault in an area. Some TDM strategies address these security risks directly, and land use management strategies increase community cohesion and “eyes on the street” are likely to increase personal security. Strategies that increase Transportation System Resilience can help reduce a broad range of risks to individuals and communities.


TDM Strategies

Address Security Concerns, Guaranteed Ride Home, Street Reclaiming, Pedestrian and Bicycle Improvements, Transit Oriented Development, New Urbanism, Transportation Resilience.


Wit and Humor

When I die I want to go like my grandfather – in his sleep. Not screaming like the other passengers in his car.



References And Resources For More Information


AARP (2009), Planning Complete Streets for an Aging America, American Association for Retired Persons Public Policy Institute (; at


APEC Motorcycle and Scooter Safety: Compendium of Best Practices ( provides information on various strategies for  improving motorcycle safety, particularly in developing countries.


Leslie T. Blakey (2003), “Red-Light Cameras: Effective Enforcement Measure for Intersection Safety,” ITE Journal, Vol. 73, No. 3, Institute of Transportation Engineers (, March 2003, pp. 34-43.


Lawrence Blincoe (1995), Economic Cost of Motor Vehicle Crashes 1994, NHTSA, USDOT (Washington DC;


BTS (2000), Transportation Safety Data, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, USDOT (


CTRE (2006), Four-Lane to Three-Lane Conversion: Research Projects/Reports, Center for Transportation Research and Education (; available at


Philip Demosthenes (2003), How Planning Decisions Impact Highway Collision Histories, 2nd Urban Street Symposium, Anaheim, California (


DfT (2011), Transport Analysis Guidance, Integrated Transport Economics and Appraisal, Department for Transport (

Safety Objective:

Security Objective:


Nicolae Duduta, Claudia Adriazola-Steil and Dario Hidalgo (2013), Saving Lives With Sustainable Transportation, EMBARQ (; at


Nicolae Duduta, et al. (2014), Traffic Safety on Bus Priority Systems: Recommendations for Integrating Safety Into the Planning, Design, and Operations of Major Bus Routes, EMBARQ (; at


Eric Dumbaugh (2005), “Safe Streets, Livable Streets,” Journal of the American Planning Association (, Vol. 71, No. 3, pp. 283-300; at


Eric Dumbaugh and Robert Rae (2009), “Safe Urban Form: Revisiting the Relationship Between Community Design and Traffic Safety,” Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 75, No. 3, Summer  (DOI: 10.1080/01944360902950349); at


P. Elsenaar and S. Abouraad (2005), Road Safety Best Practices - Examples and Recommendations, Global Road Safety Partnership ( This manual describes specific measures for reducing roadway risk, particularly in developing counties. It covers: Campaign and Enforcement, Awareness and Partnership, Crash Databases, Treatment of Black Spots, Road Design and Speed Management, Heath and Road Safety, and Prehospital Care.


Rune Elvik (2001), “Zero Killed in Traffic – from Vision to Implementation,” Nordic Road & Transport Research, No. 1 (, 2001.


Rune Elvik (2003), “How Would Setting Policy Priorities According to Cost-Benefit Analyses Affect the Provision of Road Safety,” Accident Analysis & Prevention, Vol. 35 (, pp. 557-570.


Reid Ewing and Eric Dumbaugh (2009), “The Built Environment and Traffic Safety: A Review of Empirical Evidence,” Journal of Planning Literature, Vol. 23 No. 4, May, pp. 347-367; at


Reid Ewing and Shima Hamidi (2014), Measuring Urban Sprawl and Validating Sprawl Measures, Metropolitan Research Center at the University of Utah for the National Cancer Institute, the Brookings Institution and Smart Growth America (; at


FHWA (2010), Transportation Planner's Safety Desk Reference, Federal Highway Administration; at


Lawrence Frank and Peter Engelke (2000), How Land Use and Transportation Systems Impact Public Health, Active Community Environments, Georgia Institute of Technology and Center for Disease Control (Atlanta;


Lawrence Frank, Sarah Kavage and Todd Litman (2006), Promoting Public Health Through Smart Growth: Building Healthier Communities Through Transportation And Land Use Policies, Smart Growth BC (; available at


Paul Fremer and Michael Stöckert (2016), Towards More Livable And Safer Cities: Examples For Safe Road Infrastructure Design, GIZ ( and SUTP (; at


HSIS (2010), Evaluation of Lane Reduction “Road Diet” Measures on Crashes Summary Report Research, Development, and Technology, Highway Safety Information System (; summary report at


IDOT, SMS Toolbox of Highway Safety Strategies, Iowa Department of Transportation ( is a compilation of highway crash data and potential safety improvement strategies.


Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (


International Traffic Medicine Association ( works to reduce human harm from traffic crashes by improving crash prevention, injury prevention, emergency response and injury treatment.


International Cooperation on Theories and Concepts in Traffic Safety ( is an association that works to achieve a deeper understanding of traffic risk and opportunities for accident prevention.


ITF (2012), Pedestrian Safety, Urban Space and Health, International Transport Forum for the OECD (; at


Peter L. Jacobsen (2003), “Safety In Numbers: More Walkers and Bicyclists, Safer Walking and Bicycling,” Injury Prevention (, Vol. 9, pp. 205-209; at


Richard E. Killingsworth and Jean Lamming (2001), “Development and Public Health; Could Our Development Patterns be Affecting Our Personal Health?” Urban Land, Urban Land Institute (, July 2001, pp. 12-17


Charlie Komanoff (1999), Killed by Automobile, Right of Way (


W.A. Leaf and D.F. Preusser (1998), Literature Review on Vehicle Travel Speeds and Pedestrian Injuries, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, USDOT (; available at


Todd Litman (2001), Transportation Cost and Benefit Analysis: Techniques, Estimates and Implications, Victoria Transport Policy Institute (; includes a chapter on “Crashes, Security and Health Impacts” at


Todd Litman (2005), Terrorism, Transit and Public Safety: Evaluating the Risks, VTPI (; available at


Todd Litman (2006), Evaluating Public Transit Benefits and Costs, VTPI (, 2004; available at


Todd Litman (2009), “Transportation Policy and Injury Control,” Injury Prevention, Vol. 15, Issue 6 (; at


Todd Litman (2010), Evaluating Public Transportation Health Benefits, American Public Transportation Association (; at


Todd Litman (2012), Pricing for Traffic Safety: How Efficient Transport Pricing can Reduce Roadway Crash Risk, Transportation Research Record 2318, Transportation Research Board (; pp. 16-22; at


Todd Litman (2013), Safer Than You Think! Revising the Transit Safety Narrative, Paper 13-4357, Transportation Research Board 2013 Annual Meeting (; at


Todd Litman (2014), “How Transport Pricing Reforms Can Increase Road Safety,” Traffic Infra Tech, April-May 2014, pp. 68-71 ( ); at


Todd Litman (2014), “A New Transit Safety Narrative,” Journal of Public Transportation (, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 114-135; at


Todd Litman (2016), The Hidden Traffic Safety Solution: Public Transportation, American Public Transportation Association (; at


Todd Litman (2017), The New Traffic Safety Paradigm, Victoria Transport Policy Institute (; at


Todd Litman and Steve Fitzroy (2005), Safe Travels: Evaluating Mobility Management Traffic Safety Impacts, VTPI (; at


Peter D. Loeb and William A. Clarke (2009), “The Cell Phone Effect on Pedestrian Fatalities,” Transportation Research, Vol. 45E, pp. 284–290.


London (2004), Congestion Charging: Update On Scheme Impacts And Operations, Transport for London (


Juha Luoma and Michael Sivak (2012), Why Is Road Safety in the U.S. Not on Par With Sweden, the U.K., and the Netherlands? Lessons to be Learned, Transportation Research Institute, University of Michigan (; at


Make Roads Safe ( is a global campaign to increase road safety.


Frank Markowitz, Stanley Sciortino, Jack Lucero Fleck and Bond M. Lee (2006), “Pedestrian Countdown Signals: Experience With An Extensive Pilot Installation,” ITE Journal, Vol. 76, No. 1 (, January 2006, pp. 43-48.


Wesley E. Marshall and Norman W. Garrick (2011), “Evidence on Why Bike-Friendly Cities Are Safer for All Road Users,” Environmental Practice, Vol 13/1, March; at


Murray May, Paul J. Tranter and James R. Warn (2008), “Towards a Holistic Framework for Road Safety in Australia,” Journal of Transport Geography, Vol. 16.


Sage R. Myers, et al. (2013), “Safety in Numbers: Are Major Cities the Safest Places in the United States?” Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 62, Is. 4, pp. 408-418.e3, American College of Emergency Physicians (; at


Ted Miller (1991), The Costs of Highway Crashes, FHWA (Washington DC), Publication No. FHWA-RD-055; available at   


Dan Nabors, et al. (2007), Pedestrian Road Safety Audit Guidelines and Prompt Lists, Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (, Federal Highway Administration Office of Safety; at


National Highway Traffic Safety Administration ( provides comprehensive traffic crash data and information on safety programs.


National Center for Statistics and Analysis ( by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration provides a wide range of analytical and statistical support for road risk research.


Robert Noland (2001), Traffic Fatalities And Injuries: Are Reductions The Result Of ‘Improvements’ In Highway Design Standards?, Imperial College, London (, presented at the Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting (


NYC (2010), The New York City Pedestrian Safety Study & Action Plan, New York City Department of Transportation (; at


OECD (2001), International Road Traffic and Accident Database, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (; available at


PIARC (2015), Road Safety Manual: A Manual For Practitioners And Decision Makers On Implementing Safe System Infrastructure, World Road Association (; at


John Pucher and Lewis Dijkstra (2000), “Making Walking and Cycling Safer: Lessons from Europe,” Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 54, No. 3, Summer 2000; available at


Richard A. Retting, Susan A. Ferguson and Anne T. McCartt (2003), “A Review of Evidence-Based Traffic Engineering Measures Designed to Reduce Pedestrian-Motor Vehicle Crashes,” American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 93, No. 9 (, Sept. 2003, pp. 1456-1463.


Road Safety Audit Website ( provides access to resources related to safety audits.


Road Safety Cafe ( provides a variety of road safety information.


Royal Society of the Prevention of Accidents Website ( provides accident statistics and safety information.


Safety Conscious Planning (, is a U.S. Federal Highway Administration website providing information on ways to incorporate traffic safety into transportation planning.


Angie Schmitt (2016), America Has a Terrible Traffic Safety Record Because We Drive Too Much, Street Blog (; at


Jim P. Stimpson, et al. (2014), “Share of Mass Transit Miles Traveled and Reduced Motor Vehicle Fatalities in Major Cities of the United States,” Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, (doi:10.1007/s11524-014-9880-9); at


Jack Stuster and Zail Coffman (1998), Synthesis of Safety Research Related to Speed and Speed Limits, Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-RD-98-154 (


SUPREME (2005), Best Practices In Road Safety, Summary And Publication Of Best Practices In Road Safety In The Member States, European Commission (; at


Peter Swift (1998), Residential Street Typology and Injury Accident Frequency, Swift and Associates (


TC (annual reports), Canadian Motor Vehicle Traffic Collision Statistics, Transport Canada ( 


Paul Joseph Tranter (2010), “Speed Kills: The Complex Links Between Transport, Lack of Time and Urban Health,” Journal of Urban Health, Vol. 87, No. 2, doi:10.1007/s11524-009-9433-9; at


Vision Zero Network ( helps communities identify and implement the most effective safe mobility strategies.


Hans-Joachim Vollpracht (2010), “They Call Them Coffin Roads,” Routes-Roads, N° 347, World Road Association (; at


WHO (2000), Carlos Dora and Margaret Phillips (eds), Transport, Environment and Health, World Health Organization Regional Publication, European Series, No. 89 (


WHO (2004), World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention: Special Report for World Health Day on Road Safety, World Health Organization (; at


WHO (2013), Pedestrian Safety: A Road Safety Manual For Decision-Makers And Practitioners, World Health Organization (; at


Allan F. Williams (2003), “Graduated Licensing in the United States,” ITE Journal, Vol. 73, No. 9 (, Sept. 2003, pp. 28-30.


Eugene M. Wilson and Martin E. Lipinski (2004), Road Safety Audits: A Synthesis of Highway Practice, National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 336: Road Safety Audits (


Charles V. Zegeer, Laura Sandt and Margaret Scully (2009), How to Develop a Pedestrian Safety Accident Plan, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Federal Highway Administration; at


Charles V. Zegeer, et al. (1994), “Accident Relationships of Roadway Width on Low-Volume Roads,” Transportation Research Record 1445, TRB (, pp. 160.


Zegeer, et al (2001), Identification of Severe Crash Factors and Countermeasures in North Carolina, North Carolina Department of Transportation (


Charles Zegeer, et al. (2010), Pedestrian Safety Strategic Plan: Recommendations for Research and Product Development, Federal Highway Administration Office of Safety (; at

This Encyclopedia is produced by the Victoria Transport Policy Institute to help improve understanding of Transportation Demand Management. It is an ongoing project. Please send us your comments and suggestions for improvement.




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