Individual Business Actions


TDM Encyclopedia

Victoria Transport Policy Institute


Updated 28 November 2018

This chapter identifies TDM policies and programs that businesses can implement.



Individual businesses can implement and support TDM strategies in their roles as employers, developers, building operators and service providers. In these roles, businesses often make decisions that affect whether TDM strategies are considered at all, how TDM solutions are evaluated and compared with alternatives, and the quality with which TDM strategies are implemented.


Demand management can benefit businesses directly. For example, Parking Management can reduce costs and increase flexibility for employers and developers. Commute Trip Reduction strategies, such as Parking Cash Out and Guaranteed Ride Home programs, can help with employee recruitment and retentions. Businesses can create profitable new products and services, such as Carsharing, Priced Parking and Carfree Vacations. TDM can improve public relations by reducing Congestion and Pollution problems.


Businesses can support TDM implementation in the following ways:







Best TDM Strategies

The following strategies are particularly suitable for implementation by businesses. For more detailed information see the TDM Summary Table.


Alternative Work Schedules

Alternative work schedules include flextime, Compressed Work Week (CWW), and staggered shifts. They can reduce peak period commute travel and help accommodate ridesharing and transit use.


Bicycle Parking

Improved bicycle parking, storage and changing facilities support cycling.


Car-Free Planning

Car-free planning strategies reduce automobile travel at particular times and places, and to create pedestrian oriented streets.



Carsharing refers to vehicle rental services that substitute for private vehicle ownership. This requires that rental services be easily accessible, affordable and convenient to use, even for short time periods.


Clustered Land Use

Increased density (number of people or employees located in an area) and clustering (locating related activities close together) tend to reduce travel distances and improve travel options.


Commuter Financial Incentives

Various commuter financial incentives can be used to encourage use of more efficient commute modes. These include parking cash out, travel allowance, transit benefits, and rideshare benefits. They are often provided as an alternative to subsidized employee parking.


Employee Commute Trip Reduction

Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) programs provide encouragement, incentives and support for commuters to use alternative modes, alternative work hours, and other efficient transport options.


Guaranteed Ride Home

Guaranteed Ride Home (GRH) programs provide an occasional subsidized ride to commuters who use alternative modes, to help deal with unexpected conditions.


Multi-Modal Access Guide

A Multi-modal Access Guide provides customized directions to a particular destination by various modes.


New Urbanism

New Urbanism (also called Neotraditional Design) includes various design and development practices that create more accessible, walkable, multi-modal, and livable communities. People who live and work in such communities tend to drive less and rely more on alternative modes than in more automobile-dependent locations.


Parking Management

Various management strategies can result in more efficient use of parking resources. These include sharing, regulating and pricing of parking facilities, more accurate requirements, use of off-site parking facilities, improved user information, and incentives to use alternative modes.


Parking Pricing

Parking pricing involves charging motorists directly for using parking facilities and services, which provides revenue and cost recovery, encourages more efficient use of parking facilities, reduces parking facility costs and land requirements, reduces vehicle traffic and encourages use of alternative modes.


Parking Solutions

Comprehensive menu of solutions to parking problems.


Transportation Management Associations

Businesses can help create Transportation Management Associations (TMAs), which are member-controlled, organizations that provide transportation services in a particular area.



Telework involves the use of telecommunications to substitute for physical travel, including telecommuting, teleshopping, distance-learning, electronic government, video conferencing, and Internet-based business-to-business activities.



Examples and Case Studies


Best Workplaces for Commuters (

Best Workplaces for Commuters (BWCs) is a program through which employers encourage use of alternative commute mode. A survey of BWC firms was conducted in the fall of 2004. The survey measured differences between the commuting patterns of employees receiving employee commuter benefits such as those offered by BWCs and those who do not and to estimate the resulting saving in trips, vehicle miles of travel (VMT), and emissions and fuel consumption. Employers recognized as BWCs in the Denver, Houston, San Francisco, and Washington DC metro areas were randomly sampled and recruited into the survey using a combination of telephone and email communications. The results of this survey indicate that where employers provide employees with incentives to commute by means other than driving alone, significant percentages of them take advantage of these benefits. Comprehensive benefit packages such as those enjoyed by commuters in the BWC group, with financial incentives, services (such as guaranteed ride home, carpool matching, etc.) and informational campaigns, appear to produce reductions of trips, VMT, pollutants, and fuel consumption of around 15% even under conservative assumptions. Benefits packages offering services and information, but not financial incentives, appear to produce reductions of around 7% under conservative assumptions.



Pioneer Pacific Property Management (BC Transit 2000;

Pioneer Pacific Property Management’s Station Tower, located at a SkyTrain station in Surrey (a suburb of Vancouver, British Columbia) is home to more than 700 employees of 30 different organizations. By working together, Station Tower has created an extremely effective program. Nearly 50 percent of Station Tower’s employees use transportation alternatives.


Known as TravelChoices, the program was commissioned by Intrawest Corporation, the developer of the complex. Each organization in the building has a TravelChoices representative who provides time to administer the program. The trip reduction program enabled Intrawest to reduce the number of parking spaces required by 50 spots. At about $11,000 per spot, that meant $500,000 in savings. The program includes the following features:


·    Showers and secure bike lockers are provided for cyclists.


·    TravelChoices members have free access to the Gateway fitness facilities, including exercise equipment, showers and lockers.


·    A ride-matching service links potential carpool partners within the complex.


·    Reserved, preferential parking is available for carpools and vanpools.


·    TravelChoices members get guaranteed ride home insurance.


·    The TravelBucks incentive program gives its members one TravelBuck for each day they use alternative transportation to and from work.


·    Prizes include free coffee, transit FareSaver Tickets, ski passes and rental car certificates.


"Working a trip reduction program into the planning stages of a development is a strategy more property developers should use. It saves money, it's environmentally friendly and it presents potential tenants with another reason to choose your site." Glenda Onstad, Senior Property Manager, Pioneer Pacific Property Management



Short Street Village

The Short Street Village is mixed-use urban infill project with multi-family and commercial retail in Saanich, British Columbia. It is located near existing commercial centers and has good walking and cycling facilities, and good public transit service. The program includes various features to encourages use of alternative transportation in order to minimize traffic impacts and protect the pedestrian environment with urban intensification. Implementing these features is a condition of the development permit.



References And Resources For More Information


Abley (2009), Commercial Activities In Auckland: Why A Centres Plus Approach Is Best – A Transportation Perspective, Auckland Regional Council (


ACT (2001), Transportation Demand Management Tool Kit, Association for Commuter Transportation (


Association for Commuter Transportation ( is a non-profit organization supporting TDM programs.


Mary Barr (1998), Downtown Parking Made Easy, Downtown Research & Development Center (


BC Transit (2003), Travel Options Manual, BC Transit (


Best Workplaces for Commuters ( is a program sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Transportation to recognize employers that provide outstanding commuter benefits. The website has a variety of resources concerning various Commute Trip Reduction strategies.


Charles C. Bohl (2002), Place Making: Developing Town Centers, Main Streets and Urban Villages, Urban Land Institute (


Geoffrey Booth, et al (2001), Transforming Suburban Business Districts, Urban Development Institute (


BV (2003), The Cycle-Friendly Workplace, Bicycle Victoria ( Details

five easy steps to make workplaces more cycle friendly, including encouraging businesses to discover the benefits, improve facilities, create a cycle-friendly culture, provide incentives and celebrate a cycling culture.


Michael Carley (2000), Sustainable Transport and Retail Vitality: State of the Art for Towns & Cities, National Trust for Scotland.


Michael Carley, Karryn Kirk and Sarah McIntosh (2001), Retailing, Sustainability And Neighbourhood Regeneration, (ISBN 1 84263 49 0) Joseph Roundtree Foundation (


Commuter Challenge Program ( is a non-profit organization that provides businesses with expertise and support to create innovative solutions that reduce commute trips.


Commuter Choice Program ( provides information on Commute Trip Reduction programs and benefits, particularly U.S. income tax policies related to commuter benefits.


Commuter Choice Business Calculator ( indicates how much business can save by using Commuter Choice tax benefits.


Congress for the New Urbanism (, provides a variety of information on innovative urban design. The CNU Narrow Streets Database ( describes more flexible zoning codes being implemented in various communities.


DTLR (2002), Making Travel Plans Work: Lessons From UK Case Studies, Department of Transportation, Lands and Regions (


ECMT (2002), Managing Commuters’ Behaviour: A New Role for Companies, European Conference of Ministers of Transport, OECD (


Reid Ewing (1996), Best Development Practices; Doing the Right Thing and Making Money at the Same Time, Planners Press (


FHWA (2003), Interactive Guidance Tool: Commuter Choice Decision Support System (CCDSS), Federal Highway Administration (


Go Boulder (2007), Transportation Options Tool Kit, Go Boulder Program, City of Boulder, Colorado (; at


Go Green, Walk & Roll: A Guide to Active Transport To, From, and At the Workplace, Canadian Council for Health and Active Living at Work (


Sara Hendricks and Ajay Joshi (2004), Commuter Choice Program Case Study Development and Analysis, Center for Urban Transportation Research (


Bernhard Herzog (2010), Urban Freight In Developing Cities, Module 1G in the Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-makers in Developing Cities, published by the Sustainable Urban Transport Project – Asia ( and Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (; at


Erik Herzog, et al (2006), Do Employee Commuter Benefits Reduce Vehicle Emissions and Fuel Consumption?  Results of the Fall 2004 Best Workplaces for Commuters Survey, Transportation Research Board 85th Annual Meeting (; available at


ICF Consulting and CUTR (2005), Analyzing the Effectiveness of Commuter Benefits Programs, TCTP Report 107, Transportation Research Board (; available at


LGC (2004), Creating Great Neighborhoods: Density in Your Community, Local Government Commission (, US Environmental Protection Agency and the National Association of Realtors; available at


Todd Litman (2006), Parking Management: Strategies, Evaluation and Planning, Victoria Transport Policy Institute (; available at


Todd Litman (2008), Recommendations for Improving LEED Transportation and Parking Credits, VTPI (; at


Patrick McDonough (2003), Employer-Based Transit Pass Program Tool: Decision Support Tool for Employer-Based Transit Pass Programs, ITS Decision, Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways, University of California Berkeley ( Provides information on the effectiveness of various employee transit pass programs, selected based on geographic and program features.


MTE, Moving On the Economy Online Best Practices Database ($defaultview?OpenView&Count=5) is an ever-expanding searchable inventory of economic success stories in sustainable transportation.


NAHB (various years), Smart Growth Case Studies, National Association of Home Builders (


National Association of Realtors ( provides many resources that support New Urbanism, particularly the magazine On Common Ground (


National Charrette Institute ( supports collaborative community planning activities.


National Trust Mainstreet Center ( is a program of the National Trust for Historic Preservation which supports innovative commercial district revitalization that combines historic preservation with economic development to restore prosperity and vitality to downtowns and neighborhood business districts.


Oregon Employee Commute Options (ECO) Program ( provides commute alternatives to employees designed to reduce the number of cars driven to work. Their website has a variety of useful materials.


Scott Rutherford, Shauna Badgett, John Ishimaru and Stephanie MacLachlan (1995), “Transportation Demand Management: Case Studies of Medium-Sized Employers,” Transportation Research Record 1459, TRB (, pp. 7-16.


Ryan Russo (2001), Planning for Residential Parking: A Guide For Housing Developers and Planners, Non-Profit Housing Association of Northern California ( and the Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy (


SAVE (2001), Toolbox for Mobility Management in Companies, European Commission ( This website provides information to help companies develop a mobility plan in order to encourage the use of public transport, collective company transport, car-pooling, walking and cycling for home-work journeys.


Schaller Consulting (2006), Curbing Cars: Shopping, Parking and Pedestrian Space in SoHo, Transportation Alternatives (; available at


Yan Song and Gerrit-Jan Knaap (2003), The Effects of New Urbanism on Housing Values: A Quantitative Assessment, National Center for Smart Growth Research and Education, University of Maryland (


Eric Sundquist, et al. (2018), Modernizing Mitigation: A Demand-Centered Approach, State Smart Transportation Initiative ( and the Mayors Innovation Project (; at


TC (2002), Commuter Options: A Complete Guide for Canadian Employers, Transport Canada (


Transportation Demand Management (TDM) Database ( by Transport Canada, contains profiles and results for transportation management projects that foster energy efficiency, sustainable development, accessibility and increased productivity by influencing urban travel behaviours.


Travel Plans Website ( provides guidance for developing employer and community transportation management programs.


TransitChek ( is a private company that provides transit financial benefits from employers to employees.


Urban Land Institute ( is a professional organization for developers that provides practical information on innovative development practices, including infill and sustainable community planning.


USEPA (2002), Business Benefits Calculator (BBC), Commuter Choice Program (, USEPA. 


USEPA (2005), Commuter Model, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (


Phil L. Winters and Sara J. Hendricks (2003), Quantifying The Business Benefits of TDM, Center for Urban Transportation Research, for the Office of Research and Special Programs, USDOT



Worksite Trip Reduction Model ( is an Internet-based computer model that can be used to predict the effects of a particular Commute Trip Reduction program.


WTA (2001), Getting to Work; A Handbook for Employee Transportation Coordinators, Westside Transportation Alliance, Beaverton, OR (

This Encyclopedia is produced by the Victoria Transport Policy Institute to help improve understanding of Transportation Demand Management. It is an ongoing project. Please send us your comments and suggestions for improvement.




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