Municipal Actions for Efficient Transportation
Victoria Transport Policy Institute
Updated 6 September 2019
This chapter identifies TDM policies and programs suitable for implementation by municipal governments.
Municipal (also called Local) Governments are responsible for local infrastructure, services and laws, and so play a key role in the TDM implementation through their influence on nonmotorized facilities (sidewalks, paths and crosswalks), roadway design and management, public transit services, local land use policies, parking policies, taxes and fees, and traffic enforcement activities. Municipal governments significantly affect the quality of Mobility Options available in a community, particularly walking, cycling and local public transit services, and overall community Accessibility.
TDM strategies can help achieve many municipal goals, including reduced traffic and parking congestion, road and parking cost savings, household cost savings, support for more local development and efficient land use (reduced sprawl), improved mobility for non-drivers, improved community livability, improved public fitness and health. Because municipal governments represent the interests of local residents they tend to recognize the diverse benefits of TDM.
Municipal governments can support TDM implementation in the following ways:
The following strategies are particularly suitable for implementation by community organizations. For more detailed information see the TDM Summary Table.
Access management increases coordination between roadway design and land use development patterns to improve transportation system performance, including reduced congestion and accidents, and improved accessibility.
There are various ways to address the security concerns of people using alternative modes such as walking, cycling, ridesharing and public transit.
Various policies and programs can help preserve the value of assets such as roadways and parking facilities.
Improved bicycle parking, storage and changing facilities support cycling.
There are various ways to improve the integration of bicycling and public transit travel, including improved cycling access and bicycle storage at transit stops and stations, and the ability to carry bikes on transit vehicles.
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems provide high quality bus service on busy urban corridors.
Car-free planning strategies reduce automobile travel at particular times and places, and to create pedestrian oriented streets.
Change Management involves various techniques that help build support for innovation within organizations.
Increased density (number of people or employees located in an area) and clustering (locating related activities close together) tend to reduce travel distances and improve travel options.
Various commuter financial incentives can be used to encourage use of more efficient commute modes. These include parking cash out, travel allowance, transit benefits, and rideshare benefits. They are often provided as an alternative to subsidized employee parking.
Complete Streets Policies recognize that roadways often serve diverse functions including through travel, recreational walking, socializing, vending, and nearby living, which must be considered and balanced in roadway design and management.
Transportation price and market reforms can encourage more efficient transportation and support TDM objectives.
Various planning reforms can result in more comprehensive and accurate transportation decision-making. Current planning results in omissions and distortions that tend to overvalue automobile-oriented improvements and undervalue alternative solutions to transportation problems. More comprehensive planning is particularly important when evaluating TDM and alternative modes.
Improved roadway and pathway connectivity tends to improve accessibility and reduce vehicle travel distances.
Flexible design requirements to reflect community values.
Planning that deals with uncertainly by identifying solutions to potential future problems.
There are many ways to improve cycling conditions and encouraging cycling activity, including improved design and maintenance of cycling paths and lanes, improved bicycle parking and changing facilities, and user education and information, and encouragement programs.
Creating vibrant downtowns, business districts, urban villages and other accessible, mixed-use activity centers tends to support many TDM strategies.
Mobility management strategies can help improve transportation services during emergencies.
Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) programs provide encouragement, incentives and support for commuters to use alternative modes, alternative work hours, and other efficient transport options.
Freight Transport Management increases freight transportation efficiency by shifting improving the quality of efficient freight modes (such as rail and integrated distribution services), providing incentives to use the most efficient option for each type of delivery, increasing load factors, improving logistics, and reducing unnecessary shipping distances and volumes.
There are various ways to fund transport programs, some of which support TDM objectives by charging directly for vehicle use.
High Occupant Vehicle (HOV) priority strategies give priority to public transit vehicles, vanpools and carpools in traffic and parking.
Institutional reforms include various changes to transportation organizations’ policies and practices that support Transportation Demand Management.
Least Cost Planning refers to planning and investment reforms that support demand management implementation when overall cost effective. This tends to support TDM policies and programs.
Light Rail Transit (LRT) systems provide convenient local transit service on busy urban corridors.
Location Efficient Development consists of residential and commercial development located and designed to maximize accessibility and overall affordability. Location Efficient Mortgages recognize the household savings at such locations, increasing borrowing ability.
A Multi-modal Access Guide provides customized directions to a particular destination by various modes.
New Urbanism (also called Neotraditional Design) includes various design and development practices that create more accessible, walkable, multi-modal, and livable communities. People who live and work in such communities tend to drive less and rely more on alternative modes than in more automobile-dependent locations.
Nonmotorized facilities such as walkways, sidewalks and paths can be managed to reduce conflicts and improve user convenience and safety.
Nonmotorized planning can improve walking and cycling conditions, and encourage use of nonmotorized modes.
Improved operations and management can encourage more efficient use of existing roadways.
Park & Ride facilities are parking lots at transit stations and stops. They support ridesharing and public transit use.
Various management strategies can result in more efficient use of parking resources. These include sharing, regulating and pricing of parking facilities, more accurate requirements, use of off-site parking facilities, improved user information, and incentives to use alternative modes.
Parking pricing involves charging motorists directly for using parking facilities and services, which provides revenue and cost recovery, encourages more efficient use of parking facilities, reduces parking facility costs and land requirements, reduces vehicle traffic and encourages use of alternative modes.
Comprehensive menu of solutions to parking problems.
Improved pricing methods can reduce the transaction costs and increase the cost efficiency of road tolls, parking fees and mileage charges.
Principles for prioritizing transportation activities and investments.
There are various ways to encourage public transit ridership by improving service, reducing fares, increasing user convenience and information, providing incentives, and supporting marketing programs.
Ridesharing refers to carpooling and vanpooling. Rideshare programs include ridematching services (which help travelers find travel partners), and strategies that give rideshare vehicles priority in traffic and parking.
Changes in roadway design and management practices can encourage more efficient transportation by providing more space for walking, cycling, ridesharing and public transit.
School Transport Management programs encourage parents, students and staff to reduce automobile trips and use alternative modes when traveling to and from schools.
Sharing parking facilities among various users can increase efficiency and support various TDM strategies.
Shuttle services include circulating shuttle buses, demand response and other special mobility services, jitneys and free transit zones.
Small-wheeled vehicles include wheeled luggage, walkers, skates, scooters and handcarts.
Smart Growth involves various local and regional land use planning practices that create more accessible, multi-modal, efficient and livable communities. This tends to reduce driving and increase use of alternative modes.
Various planning, regulatory and fiscal reforms help create more efficient land use. These reforms can help correct existing practices that encourage automobile-dependent land use development patterns.
Special programs can help managed transportation efficiently during major events, construction projects and emergencies.
Reducing traffic speeds tends to improve walking and cycling conditions, increase safety, reduce air and noise pollution, encourage more compact development, and reduce total automobile travel.
Street reclaiming involves various strategies that increase community interaction on neighborhood streets.
Streetscaping involves various ways to redesign roadways (particularly urban arterials) to support more multi-modal transportation and create more attractive and accessible communities.
TDM can help achieve sustainable transport planning objectives.
Taxi service improvements can help support TDM.
TDM marketing programs and strategies investigate the types of transportation services people want, identify barriers to alternative modes, and promote use of efficient transport options.
Discusses various issues to consider when planning and implementing Transportation Demand Management programs.
This chapter discusses different types of transportation management programs, how they are organized and funded, and their role in implementing TDM strategies.
Tourist Transport Management involves various policies and programs that improve recreational travel options and reduce automobile traffic in resort areas.
Traffic Calming refers to various roadway design features intended to reduce traffic speeds and volumes.
There are many ways to improve public transit service quality, including increased service speed, frequency, convenience, comfort, user information, affordability and ease of access.
Transit Oriented Development (TOD) refers to residential and commercial districts located around a transit station or corridor with high quality service, with good walkability, parking management and other design features that facilitate transit use and maximize overall accessibility.
Transportation Management Associations (TMAs) are member-controlled organizations that provide transportation services in a particular area. They support implementation of many TDM strategies.
Transportation systems can be better designed and managed to accommodate all users, including people with disabilities and other special needs.
Vehicle use restrictions limit vehicle traffic at a particular time and place.
There are many ways to improve walking conditions and encourage pedestrian transportation, including improved design and maintenance of sidewalks, paths, crosswalks, and better user information.
There are many ways to encourage walking and cycling transport, including facility improvements, promotion campaigns, events, educational programs, and development of guides and other information materials.
Provide wayfinding improvements and other multi-modal navigation tools that offer guidance for walking, cycling, driving and public transit use.
Examples of municipal government TDM policies and programs are available from Transit Benefit Ordinance (www.transitbenefitordinance.com), International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (www.iclei.org), Cities For Mobility (www.cities-for-mobility.org) and the American Planning Association’s Planning Advisory Service (www.planning.org).
The report, Quantifying the Effect of Local Government Actions on VMT (Salon 2014), uses sophisticated analysis of travel survey data to quantify how much Californians will change the amount that they drive in response to various land use and transport system changes.
The analysis found large Vehicle Miles Travelled (VMT) differences between people living in different neighborhood types. Daily weekday VMT and nonwork VMT are both three times larger in the highest-VMT neighborhood type than in the lowest. Transit access in the home census tract is associated with reduced VMT for households and for nonwork trips, but its effect is somewhat mixed for home-to-work commute VMT. Pedestrian and bicycle-friendliness has a negative impact on all types of VMT as well.
The analysis indicates that these impacts vary with the geographic context. For example, gas price changes significantly affect VMT in most neighborhoods, but less so in “Central City” (where residents drive little), “Rural” and “Rural In Urban” neighborhoods (since residents have few alternatives to driving). The effect of local employment access on VMT is larger in the “Urban Low Transit Use”, “Suburb MFH”, and “Suburb SFH” neighborhood types. Combined, these results suggest that the effect of prices on driving will be largest where persons have alternatives to driving and/or flexibility to increase trip chaining and consolidate travel to reduce overall VMT. The authors conclude that increasing the cost of driving (through, e.g., more efficient pricing) and providing alternatives to driving are not either/or substitutable policies, but rather complementary policies that combined can have larger impacts in terms of system efficiencies and externality reduction than would be possible separately.
These findings suggest that vehicle travel can be reduced by meeting unmet demand for housing in lower VMT neighborhood types by removing barriers that make it difficult for developers to build them. It also identifies which VMT reduction strategies can be tailored to specific areas. Results of this research are embedded in VMT Impact Models, which allows users to easily see the implications of this work for any census tract, city, or region in California.
Over the last 20 year, Chattanooga, Tennessee has redeveloped its once-depressed downtown to become a major commercial and tourist center that attracts millions of visitors a year. This evaluated out of three decades of community planning that emphasize citizen involvement, local environmental quality and strategic investments.
Concerned about the impacts that pollution was causing on local economy, the Chattanooga Chamber of Commerce created a Air Pollution Control Board in 1967. The board included a diversity group of business leaders and citizens. It established a 1972 deadline for all existing major sources of pollution to be in compliance with emission standards, which was met at a cost of $40 million. National and international attention was focused on a city that in three years had changed from the most polluted city in the United States to one of the cleanest. This inspired a new community challenge, revitalizing a dying city.
In the early 80’s, city officials established a goal that Chattanooga should become a leader in developing solutions to urban problems. In 1982, City and County governments appointed a task force to study and define the best way to develop the 22-mile Tennessee River corridor around Chattanooga. Through this process thousands of citizens attended hundreds of meetings to focus on the riverfront. The Task Force drafted the Tennessee Riverfront Master Plan covered 20 years and involved $750 million in commercial, residential and recreational development.
This led to creation of the RiverCity Corporation, a private, nonprofit organization with a mandate to implement the Riverfront Master Plan and 40 community development goals. Among other achievements, it developed the Tennessee Aquarium, the world’s largest freshwater aquarium, which opened in 1992. The structure has become a trademark for the city that in 10 years transformed itself from a dying city to one of growth and sustainable development.
A second "structure" that defines Chattanooga was also introduced in 1992. The Electric Shuttle was implemented by the Chattanooga Area Regional Transportation Authority. With free five minute service between the Tennessee Aquarium and the Chattanooga Choo Choo hotel, the Electric Shuttle provided the transportation link that had been identified as one of the top goals identified during Vision 2000. As a result of these efforts, Chattanooga is now one of America's most livable cities.
After the City of Pasadena, California commissioned a detailed study of potential traffic reduction strategies, the city manager and Transportation Advisory Committee recommended the following:
The City of Seattle, Washington has implemented more than 700 traffic circles on residential streets and adds dozens more each year (Mundell, 1998). It has a standard process for residents to request Traffic Calming, and various funding sources. The response has been positive: there are hundreds of requests each year for more Traffic Calming projects, and although devices can be removed if residents are unhappy with the final result, this has only happened once.
The city of Palo Alto, California, has implemented an extensive process to develop a new city zoning code that encourages the type of development a community wants, including more flexible, design-oriented, form-based codes. The city hired leading planners, published several discussion papers, and involved numerous stakeholders. The result is a new approach to zoning, which allows and supports many New Urbanist design features.
The International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives sponsors the Cities for Climate Protection Program, which helps local governments create programs to encourage more efficient energy use, including transportation demand management.
(from Douglas Kolozsvari and Donald Shoup, “Turning Small Change Into Big Changes,” ACCESS 23, University of Calif. Transport Center, www.uctc.net/access/access23lite.pdf, Fall 2003, pp. 2-7)
Old Pasadena’s downtown had become run down, with many derelict and abandoned buildings and few customers, in part due to the limited amount of parking available to customers. Curb parking was restricted to two-hour duration, but many employees simply parked in the most convenient, on-street spaces and moved their vehicles several times each day. The city proposed pricing on-street parking as a way to increase turnover and make parking available to customers. Many local merchants originally opposed the idea. As a compromise, city officials agreed to dedicate all revenues to public improvements that make the downtown more attractive. A Parking Meter Zone (PMZ) was established within which parking was priced and revenues were invested.
With this proviso, the merchants agreed to the proposal. They began to see parking meters in a new way: as a way to fund the projects and services that directly benefit their customers and businesses. Because parking had previously been unpriced, the city didn’t lose anything from the general fund by dedicating the revenue to the local area. In fact, the city gained additional revenue from overtime fines. The city formed a PMZ advisory board consisting of business and property owners, which recommended parking policies and set spending priorities for the meter revenues. This approach of connecting parking revenues directly to added public services and keeping it under local control help guarantee the program’s success. Investments included new street furniture and trees, more police patrols, better street lighting, more street and sidewalk cleaning, pedestrian facility improvements and marketing (including production of area maps showing local attractions and parking facilities. To highlight these benefits to motorists, each parking meter has a small sticker which reads, “Your Meter Money Will Make A Difference: Signage, Lighting, Benches, Paving”
This created a “virtuous cycle” in which parking revenue funded community improvements that attracted more visitors which increased the parking revenue, allowing further improvements. This resulted in extensive redevelopment of buildings, new businesses and residential development. Parking is no longer a problem for customers, who can almost always find a convenient space. Local sales tax revenues have increased far faster than in other shopping districts with lower parking rates, and nearby malls that offer free customer parking. This indicates that charging market rate parking (i.e., prices that result in 85-90% peak-period utilization rates) with revenues dedicated to local improvements can be an effective ways to support urban redevelopment.
The City of Vancouver is developing a more flexible approach to parking requirements for mult-family dwellings to support efficient transportation, smart growth and affordable housing planning objectives. City staff have proposed a Sustainable Transportation Credit Program that allows developers more flexibility based on their specific location and circumstances. The program is loosely based on the LEED TM Green building rating system. Developers receive credits for reducing the number of parking stalls, providing parking spaces for carshare vehicles, and providing annual transit passes to building occupants.
Starting in 1989, the city of Boulder, Colorado began implementing a demonstration transit service using a fleet of small, colorfully designed buses to provide high frequency, inexpensive and direct service within the city. And thus, the first Community Transit Network bus, the HOP, was born. Today, there are six bus routes in the Community Transit Network — HOP, SKIP, JUMP, BOUND, DASH and STAMPEDE. All have a unique identity and amenities shaped with community input and direction. In 1990, Transit ridership was about 5,000 riders daily for all local and regional routes in and out of Boulder. In 2002, ridership was at a daily average of about 26,000, a 500 percent increase. The city of Boulder is partnering with the city of Longmont and Boulder County to add another high-frequency bus route on Highway 119, scheduled to begin in 2004.
This manual, developed by a team of planners, engineers and designers for the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, presents best current urban street design practices to maximize health, safety, livability and sustainability. It provides information and a template that can be adopted, modified, customized, or expanded as appropriate. It includes chapters on street and intersection design, universal pedestrian access, pedestrian crossings, bikeway design, transit accommodation, traffic calming, streetscape ecosystems (including stormwater management, landscaping and street furniture), placemaking, land use policies, retrofitting suburbia, and community engagement.
Three Australian cities have levies on non-residential urban parking, intended to encourage use of alternative modes and fund transport facilities and services:
· In Sydney, a Parking Space Levy of AU$800 annual per stall is currently applied to parking in the central business district (CBD), and AU$400 per stall at other business districts. The levy applies to all privately owned, non-residential, off-street parking. It is prorated for parking facilities that are only used occasionally, such as church parking lots; property owners must maintain daily records indicating how often such space is used. The levy raises more than AU$40 million annually, which is dedicated to transportation projects and cannot be used for operating expenses.
· In Perth, parking suppliers within the CBD and surrounding area must pay a Parking Licence Fee, which has different rates for short-term and long-term use facilities (DPI, 2002). Owners only pay for the number of parking spaces that are actually in use, and may shift a space from one category to another (from “in use” to “out of use”) and pay a prorated amount if appropriate for part of a year. When first introduced in 1999, the levy was set at $AU70 per space, and has been raised to AU$155 for short-stay parking and AU$180 for commuter-orientated parking. Businesses with five parking stalls or less are exempted from the charge. The levy raises about AU$8.2 million annually.
· In Melbourne, a Long Stay Car Park Levy will be charged to designated long-stay and permanently leased parking spaces in CBD commercial car parks. The levy is intended to encourage car park owners to convert long-stay spaces into short-stay spaces, creating more parking options for shoppers and visitors. Planners estimate that the levy will apply to about 48,000 of 70,000 total CBC off-street parking spaces.
The TravelSmart program in Kamloops, British Columbia, promotes changes in travel behaviour and encourages sustainable community development in order to minimize demands on the municipal transportation system. Kamloops’ population, which is expected to increase from 85,000 to 120,000 by 2020, is placing increased demands on the city's transportation system and causing growing concern about quality of life amongst residents. Launched in January 1997, TravelSmart includes these ongoing initiatives:
Land use integration: Recognizing the strong links between transportation and land use, the city's official plan was revised to minimize the demand for car travel by influencing growth patterns. The plan now favours a compact form of development, situating accommodation close to employment and community services, and increasing density of the central area.
Less expensive road structure alternatives: To avoid expensive improvements to road networks, the city has slowed or halted development in some areas and identified underutilized arterial corridors for access to the downtown core. Rather than building bypasses over the busy highway that runs through town, the city encourages residents to use alternatives to the highway.
Improved public transit: A comprehensive travel plan was developed to improve the level of service and provide alternatives to the single occupant vehicle. Some improvements include increased frequency of service to outlying communities and the use of smaller buses that feed into the main system.
Promoting bicycle use: The Kamloops Bicycle Plan identifies $6 million worth of additional cycle routes and initiatives for businesses to provide "end of trip" facilities to cyclists, such as showers and bike racks.
Promotional programs: Transportation alternatives, such as carpooling, biking and walking, are promoted through workshops and seminars in workplaces; the "Safe Routes to School" program in schools; "Go Green" billboards on commuter streets; and door-to-door neighborhood education by city staff. The plan recognizes the need for an ongoing awareness campaign and community involvement to sustain TravelSmart.
Total project planning costs $300,000, of which $245,000 was funded by the city and $55,000 by the province. The full program is funded through city's general revenue, development cost charges, the B.C. Transportation Financing Authority, specific developers and BC Transit.
TravelSmart will be updated every five years as one component of "Kamplan", the city's growth management strategy.
After three years of operation, the program has improved air quality and reduced planned road expenditures by 75 per cent. Economic and environmental benefits:
· Anticipated road expenditures were reduced from $120 million to $14 million.
· Annual energy consumption is expected to decline from 128 to 125 gigajoules per capita.
· Carbon monoxide is expected to decline from 116 to 111 kg/capita/year, and carbon dioxide from 7,200 to 7,000 kg/capita/year.
The City of Salem Design Standards requires that “Local streets should form a well- connected network that provides for safe, direct, and convenient access by automobile, bicycle, and pedestrian.”
AARP (2009), Planning Complete Streets for an Aging America, American Association for Retired Persons Public Policy Institute (www.aarp.org/ppi); at www.aarp.org/research/housing-mobility/transportation/2009_02_streets.html.
AARP (2009), Planning Complete Streets for an Aging America, American Association for Retired Persons Public Policy Institute (www.aarp.org/ppi); at www.aarp.org/research/housing-mobility/transportation/2009_02_streets.html.
APA (2006), Smart Codes, American Planning Association (www.planning.org/smartgrowthcodes). These model ordinances and regulations reflect Smart Growth principles and planning objectives.
Sarah Black, Shruti Vaidyanathan and Michael Sciortino (2009), Energy Efficiency Program Options for Local Governments under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (www.aceee.org); at http://aceee.org/pubs/e09x.pdf?CFID=4431099&CFTOKEN=15047954.
Cambridge (2009), Parking and Transportation Demand Management (TDM and PTDM), Community Development Department, City of Cambridge (www.cambridgema.gov/cdd/et/tdm/index.html); Transportation section of the Climate Change Action Plan (www.cambridgema.gov/cdd/et/climate/clim_plan/clim_plan_5.pdf).
CATSIP (California Active Transportation Safety Information Pages), Case Studies: Complete Streets (http://catsip.berkeley.edu/walkbikesafer/Complete%20Streets).
CCAP (2005), Transportation Emissions Guidebook: Land Use, Transit & Transportation Demand Management, Center of Clean Air Policy (www.ccap.org/guidebook). This Guidebook provides information on various smart growth and mobility management strategies, including rules-of-thumb estimates of VMT and emission reductions.
Cities For Mobility (www.cities-for-mobility.org) is a global network of cities that promotes the development of sustainable and efficient transportation systems.
City Repair (2003), Placemaking Guidebook, City Repair Project (www.cityrepair.org).
Complete Streets (www.completestreets.org) is a campaign to promote roadway designs that effectively accommodate multiple modes and support local planning objectives.
Dowling Associates (2010), CompleteStreetsLOS: Multi-Modal Level-of-Service Toolkit, Dowling Associates (www.dowlinginc.com/completestreetslos.php). This software program automates the procedures described in NCHRP Report 616, Multimodal Level of Service for Urban Streets, for evaluating complete streets, context-sensitive design alternatives, and smart growth from the perspective of all users of the street.
DPZ (2005), Smart Code; A Comprehensive Form Based Ordinance, The Town Paper (http://tndtownpaper.com). This model zoning code developed by Duany Plater-Zyberk promotes New Urban development by allowing more flexibility and innovation in building and street design.
Ethan N. Elkind (2009), Removing the Roadblocks: How to Make Sustainable Development Happen Now, UC Berkeley School of Law’s Center for Law, Energy & the Environment (www.law.berkeley.edu) and UCLA School of Law’s Environmental Law Center; at www.law.berkeley.edu/files/Removing_the_Roadblocks_August_2009.pdf.
European Local Transport Information Service (ELTIS) (www.eltis.org) is an on-line guide to over 400 transportation measures, policies and practices in Europe. Search its extensive database via keywords or “transport concepts.” Abstracts link to full documents and web links.
FCM (2008), Improving Travel Options with Transportation Demand Management (TDM), Centre for Sustainable Community Development, Federation of Canadian Municipalities (www.sustainablecommunities.fcm.ca); at www.sustainablecommunities.fcm.ca/files/Capacity_Building_Transportation/TransportationDemandManagement-e.pdf.
Lawrence Frank, Sarah Kavage and Todd Litman (2006), Promoting Public Health Through Smart Growth: Building Healthier Communities Through Transportation And Land Use Policies, Smart Growth BC (www.smartgrowth.bc.ca); at www.vtpi.org/sgbc_health.pdf.
Go Green Choices (www.gogreen.com) is a Vancouver regional program to encourage reduced commute trips.
GIZ and KOTI (2011), Reviving the Soul in Seoul: Seoul’s Experience in Demolishing Road Infrastructure and Improving Public Transport, GIZ and the Korea Transport Institute (KOTI), Sustainable Urban Transport Policy (www.sutp.org); at www.sutp.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2782.
Zhan Guo, et al. (2012), Amenity or Necessity? Street Standards as Parking Policy, Mineta Transportation Institute (http://transweb.sjsu.edu); at http://transweb.sjsu.edu/PDFs/research/1001-2-street-standards-street-width-parking-policy-investigation.pdf.
Healthy Cities and Urban Governance (www.who.dk/healthy-cities), World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe. This website discusses research and policy strategies for creating healthier urban conditions.
ICMA (2005), Creating a Regulatory Blueprint for Healthy Community Design: A Local Government Guide to Reforming Zoning and Land Development Codes, International City/County Management Association (www.icma.org) and Active Living By Design (www.activelivingleadership.org).
International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (www.iclei.org) is an international association of local governments and related organizations that work for more sustainable development.
ITDP (2011), Better Street, Better Cities: A Guide to Street Design in Urban India, Institute for Transport and Development Policy and the Environmental Planning Collective (www.itdp.org/betterstreets).
ITDP (2012), The End of a Life Cycle: Urban Highways Offer Cities New Opportunities for Revitalization, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (www.itdp.org); at www.itdp.org/urbanhighways. Also see, The Life and Death of Urban Highways, at www.itdp.org/documents/LifeandDeathofUrbanHighways_031312.pdf.
ITE (2010), Designing Walkable Urban Thoroughfares: A Context-Sensitive Approach, An ITE Recommended Practice, Institute of Transportation Engineers (www.ite.org) and Congress for New Urbanism (www.cnu.org); draft version at www.ite.org/bookstore/RP036.pdf.
Michael Kodama (2010), “Charge for Parking: A Major Policy Step for Glendale, CA,” Parking Today (www.parkingtoday.com), January, pp. 24-28.
LACDPH (2011), Model Design Manual for Living Streets, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (www.modelstreetdesignmanual.com).
Peter Lagerwey, et al. (2015), Pedestrian and Bicycle Transportation Along Existing Roads—ActiveTrans Priority Tool Guidebook, NCHRP Report 803, Transportation Research Board (www.trb.org); at http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_803.pdf.
Living Streets Initiative (www.livingstreets.org.uk) is a campaign to create streets that give priority to walking, cycling and play.
Todd Litman (2006), Parking Taxes: Evaluating Options and Impacts, Victoria Transport Policy Institute (www.vtpi.org/parking_tax.pdf).
Todd Litman (2007), Smart Growth Reforms: Changing Planning, Regulatory and Fiscal Practices to Support More Efficient Land Use, Victoria Transport Policy Institute (www.vtpi.org); at www.vtpi.org/smart_growth_reforms.pdf.
Todd Litman (2008), Recommendations for Improving LEED Transportation and Parking Credits, VTPI (www.vtpi.org/leed_rec.pdf.); at
Todd Litman (2010), Parking Pricing Implementation Guidelines: How More Efficient Pricing Can Help Solve Parking Problems, Increase Revenue, And Achieve Other Planning Objectives, Victoria Transport Policy Institute (www.vtpi.org); at www.vtpi.org/parkpricing.pdf.
Local Government Commission (www.lgc.org) has a variety of useful resources for neighborhood planning and pedestrian/bicycle improvements, including “Designing Safe Streets and Neighborhoods”, “The Economic Benefits of Walkable Communities" and “Why People Don't Walk and What City Planners Can Do About It” fact sheets.
Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris and Renia Ehrefeucht (2010), “Vibrant Sidewalks in the United States: Re-integrating Walking and a Quintessential Social Realm,” Access 36 (www.uctc.net/access); Spring 2010, pp. 22-29; at www.uctc.net/access/36/access-36vibrantsidewalks.pdf.
Main Street Center (www.mainstreet.org) provides information on ways to revitalize traditional commercial areas through historic preservation and grassroots-based economic development.
Mayors Climate Protection Center (www.usmayors.org/climateprotection), by the U.S. Conference of Mayors, provides information on practical municipal policies and programs that reduce climate emissions.
Adam Millard-Ball (2008), The Municipal Mobility Manager: A New Transportation Funding Stream From Carbon Trading? presented at the Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting (www.trb.org); at www.stanford.edu/~adammb/Publications/Millard-Ball_Carbon_Trading_and_Municipal_Mobility_Managers_REVISED_Nov07.pdf.
Sue Mitchell and Ben Hamilton-Baillie (2011), Traffic in Villages – Safety and Civility for Rural Roads: A Toolkit for Communities, Dorset AONB Partnership (www.dorsetaonb.org.uk); at www.dorsetaonb.org.uk/assets/downloads/Rural_Roads_Protocol/trafficinvillages-web.pdf.
Brian J. Morton, Joseph Huegy, and John Poros (2014), Close to Home: A Handbook for Transportation-Efficient Growth in Small Communities and Rural Areas, Web-Only Document 211, National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP); at http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/NCHRP_W211.pdf.
NALGEP (2005), Clean Communities on the Move: A Partnership-Driven Approach to Clean Air and Smart Transportation, National Association of Local Government Environmental Professionals (NALGEP), (www.nalgep.org); at http://contextsensitivesolutions.org/content/reading/clean_communities.
NCS (2007), Climate Protection Manual for Cities, Natural Capital Solutions (www.climatemanual.org); at http://www.climatemanual.org/Cities/index.htm. Provides case studies, best practices, cost/benefit analyses, legislation, technical descriptions and contacts to facilitate local energy conservation and emission reduction planning and program implementation.
Tracy Newsome and Danny Pleasant (2014), “Transit and Complete Streets Helping to Create the Next Charlotte,” ITE Journal (www.ite.org), February, pp. 23-25; at www.ite.org/membersonly/itejournal/pdf/2014/JB14BA22.pdf.
Noxon Associates (2008), The Case For TDM In Canada: Transportation Demand Management Initiatives And Their Benefits – A Handbook For Practitioners, Association for Commuter Transportation of Canada (www.actcanada.com); at https://bit.ly/2NXf8jz.
Noxon Associates (2011), Transportation Demand Management for Canadian Communities: A Guide to Understanding, Planning and Delivering TDM Programs, Transport Canada (www.tc.gc.ca/urban); at www.noxonassociates.com/guide.html.
NYDOT (2009), New York City Street Design Manual, New York City Department of Transportation (www.nyc.gov/html/dot) at www.nyc.gov/html/dot/html/about/streetdesignmanual.shtml.
OECD (2010), Cities and Climate Change, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (www.oecd.org).
Michael K. Park (2013), “Livable Streets: Lee’s Summit (Part I and II),” ITE Journal (www.ite.org), November and December; at www.ite.org/membersonly/itejournal/pdf/2014/JB14BA22.pdf and www.ite.org/membersonly/itejournal/pdf/2013/JB13LA44.pdf.
Lynn Parker, Annina Catherine Burns and Eduardo Sanchez (2006), Local Government Actions to Prevent Childhood Obesity, Committee on Childhood Obesity Prevention Actions for Local Governments, National Institute of Medicine, National Research Council (www.nap.edu); at www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12674#description.
PennDOT (2007), The Transportation and Land Use Toolkit: A Planning Guide for Linking Transportation to Land Use and Economic Development, Pennsylvania Dept. of Transportation, PUB 616 (3-07); at (ftp://ftp.dot.state.pa.us/public/PubsForms/Publications/PUB%20616.pdf).
Post Carbon Cities (http://postcarboncities.net) provides information to help municipal governments prepare for energy and climate uncertainty.
Project for Public Spaces (www.pps.org) provides information on “placemaking” and community redevelopment techniques.
Deborah Salon (2014), Quantifying the Effect of Local Government Actions on VMT, California Air Resources Board and the California Environmental Protection Agency (http://ww2.arb.ca.gov); at https://ww3.arb.ca.gov/research/apr/past/09-343.pdf.
San Francisco TDM Tool (www.sftdmtool.org), and Step-by-Step Instructions for Creating a TDM Plan (http://sf-planning.org/shift-transportation-demand-management-tdm), provides specific guidance for transportation planners and engineers, developers and building managers to encourage more efficient transportation, for various land use types and conditions. It gives points for each TDM strategy that can be used to evaluate program effectiveness.
Marc Schlossberg, John Rowell, Dave Amos and Kelly Sanford (2013), Rethinking Streets: An Evidence-Based Guide to 25 Complete Street Transformations, University of Oregon's Sustainable Cities Initiative (http://sci.uoregon.edu); at www.rethinkingstreets.com.
Donald Shoup (2010), “Fixing Broken Sidewalks,” Access 36 (www.uctc.net/access); Spring 2010, pp. 30-36; at www.uctc.net/access/36/access-36brokensidewalks.pdf.
SJCOG (2008), Deficiency And Transportation Demand Management Plans: Guidelines For Document Format And Content Requirements, San Joaquin Council Of Governments (www.sjcog.org); at www.sjcog.org/docs/pdf/FHWA_Cert/CMP_Deficiency_TDM_Plan_Guidelines.pdf.
Ruth Steiner, et al. (2012), Impact of Parking Supply and Demand Management on Central Business District (CBD) Traffic Congestion, Transit Performance and Sustainable Land Use, Florida Department of Transportation Research Center (www.dot.state.fl.us/research-center); at www.dot.state.fl.us/research-center/Completed_Proj/Summary_TE/FDOT_BDK77_977-07_rpt.pdf.
Eric Sundquist, et al. (2018), Modernizing Mitigation: A Demand-Centered Approach, State Smart Transportation Initiative (www.ssti.us) and the Mayors Innovation Project (www.mayorsinnovation.org); at https://bit.ly/2TCxtBD.
Galina Tachieva (2010), Sprawl Repair Manual, Island Press (www.islandpress.org).
Transit Benefit Ordinance (www.transitbenefitordinance.com). Website provides specific information on how municipal governments can encourage or require employers to offer transit benefits and other incentives for more efficient commuting.
Transport Toolkit (http://ledsgp.org/transport) by the Transport Working Group as part of the Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership helps planners and decision-makers access various information resources that can help identify the most effective tools to build and implement low emission transportation strategies.
WRI (2019), Reducing Demand for Vehicle Trips in Cities – Learning Guide, The City Fix (https://thecityfixlearn.org); at https://thecityfixlearn.org/en/learning-guide/reducing-demand-vehicle-trips-cities. This short guide describes why and how cities can implement transportation demand management policies and programs.
WRI (2019), The Role of Companies in Improving Urban Mobility – Learning Guide, The City Fix (https://thecityfixlearn.org); at https://thecityfixlearn.org/en/learning-guide/how-develop-trip-reduction-ordinance.
WSDOT (2011), Washington’s Complete Streets and Main Street Highways: Case Study Resource, Community Planning and Development, Washington State Department of Transportation (www.wsdot.wa.gov/LocalPrograms/Planning) at www.wsdot.wa.gov/NR/rdonlyres/A49BBBE7-16BC-4ACE-AF2B-3C14066674C9/0/CompleteStreets_110811.pdf.
The Zerofootprint Calculator (www.zerofootprint.net) enables you to measure and understand the impact of your ecological footprint, taking into account both direct and indirect resource consumption. Zerofootprint Cities is an initiative designed for Mayors of the world's cities to engage their citizens around climate change.
This Encyclopedia is produced by the Victoria Transport Policy Institute to help improve understanding of Transportation Demand Management. It is an ongoing project. Please send us your comments and suggestions for improvement.
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