Developing Country TDM

Transportation Demand Management in Lower-Income Regions


TDM Encyclopedia

Victoria Transport Policy Institute


Updated 29 September 2015

This chapter discusses the implementation of TDM in developing (i.e., lower-income) regions. Demand management can be particularly important in such areas due to limited economic resources, diverse transportation systems, equity objectives and environmental conditions. This chapter describes resources available to help implement TDM in developing countries.




Developing Regions (also called Lower Income, Third World or Less Industrialized Countries) are relatively low-income parts of the world. Transportation Demand Management is particularly appropriate in such areas for the following reasons.


Lower Consumer Incomes

Consumers in developing regions have less money to spend on transportation, and so depend more on Affordable Transportation options, such as walking, cycling, animal power, ridesharing, transit and taxi services. Higher transportation costs associated with Automobile Dependency tends to place a financial burden on consumers and reduce the options available to a significant portion of the population.


Limited Resources

By definition, developing regions have limited economic resources and so tend to benefit even more from transportation cost savings and efficiency than wealthier regions. For example, a TDM strategy that improves lower-cost travel options may benefit a greater portion of residents in developing than in developed regions.


Productivity and Economic Development

TDM tends to support Economic Development by encouraging more efficient transportation, as discussed below. Automobile dependency can reduce economic development if it increases overhead costs or reduces the amount of wealth available for industrial investment.


Capital Versus Labor

Compared with economically wealthy countries, developing regions usually have less capital but more labor resources, meaning that an economically optimal transportation system will tend to be more labor intensive and less capital intensive than in more developed regions.


Foreign Exchange

Most developing countries rely largely on imported vehicles, and even when they produce their own vehicles a major portion of the components are imported. Many developing countries also rely on imported petroleum. Motor vehicles, parts and fuel constitute a major portion of total imports in most developing countries. Each region or country has limited foreign exchange. Goods imported to support automobile use can reduce economic development and social welfare by crowding out the importation of other goods and services required for industrial development, education, or medical services.


Many experts predict that international fuel prices are likely to increase in the future, as the growth in production decreases while international demand grows, so the economic costs of importing petroleum are likely to increase (Transportation Costs). It is important that developing countries avoid creating an energy intensive transportation system that is vulnerable to such price increases.



Transportation equity in developing countries justifies greater emphasis on balanced transportation, due to the greater portion of the population that do not use automobiles. A policy that benefits motorists at the expense of other road users is more inequitable and imposes greater external costs in a region where only 5% of households own an automobile than where 90% of households do.


Importance of Alternative Transportation Modes

Walking, cycling and various forms of public transit are particularly important forms of transportation in many developing regions. Increased automobile use tends to consume resources (road space, transportation facility investments, etc.) and degrade travel conditions for these modes. It is economically inefficient and inequitable to favor automobile transportation if it is only used by a minority of the population, if doing so reduces transportation options used by the majority of the population.


Universal Design

Developing countries often have a wide range of travel modes and needs, including people with disabilities and communication barriers, and various types of handcarts, animal carriage and head loading (Rickert, 2003; TRL, 2004).


Prioritizing Transportation

Transportation planning involves countless decisions concerning the allocation of public resources and the management of public facilities. These tradeoffs determine the convenience, speed and safety of different modes, and so effectively prioritize transportation activities and the allocation of costs and benefits. Such decisions are often made without explicit consideration of their impacts on travel behavior or overall transportation system efficiency. More Comprehensive Transportation Planning can help decision-makers in developing countries incorporate more appropriate priorities and assumptions. For example, HOV Priority, Nonmotorized Transportation Improvements and Vehicle Restrictions may be more appropriate in developing countries where travel demand is more diverse.


Prioritizing Transportation Investments

Basic transportation improvements, such as paved roads to rural areas, can provide significant economic development benefits, often far greater than highway capacity expansion in cities. For example, Fan and Chan-Kang (2005) evaluate the contribution roads have made to poverty reduction and economic growth in China over the last two decades. Their analysis indicates that investing in low-quality and rural roads generates larger marginal returns, raise more people out of poverty per yuan invested, and reduce regional development disparity more sharply than investing in major highways.


Health and Safety

Developing countries often have high traffic fatality rates and other health risks associated with excessive motor vehicle transport, poor traffic management and inadequate infrastructure (Diallo 2010; Vollpracht 2010). Transportation demand management can help achieve health and safety objectives.


Land Use Impacts

Automobile-oriented transportation policies tend to result in automobile-dependent land use patterns, which reduces the viability and increases the costs of nonmotorized transportation.


Many developing regions have a limited supply of land which is threatened by the roads and parking required by a high level of automobile ownership. Even countries that have relatively low population densities may have a limited supply of certain types of land, such as high quality agricultural land or certain types of environments.



Sustainable Transportation principles suggest that greater value be placed on developing an efficient and balanced transportation system.


Environmental Impacts

It can be relatively difficult to implement Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction programs in developing regions due to limited funds, technological resources and enforcement institutions. Vehicle fleets in developing regions tend to be older and more poorly maintained than in developed regions, and so pollution emissions per vehicle-mile tend to be greater. As a result, reductions in vehicle use tend to provide greater environmental benefit.



Impacts of TDM and Smart Growth

TDM and Smart Growth do not eliminate automobile travel, but they can significantly reduce Automobile Dependency and the amount of automobile travel that occurs for a given level of economic development and wealth. This is particularly important in developing countries where most households cannot afford an automobile, and bear significant costs if transportation systems and land use patterns become automobile oriented.



Economic Development Impacts (Economic Development)

Vehicles used efficiently in industrial, commercial and community applications can increase productivity and support economic development. For example, a doctor or engineer can often accomplish more in a day if they have a car. But most personal automobile use is a consumer good that provides convenience and Prestige, and does little to increase productivity.


Excessive automobile ownership and use tends to reduce economic development (Litman 2009). International research suggests that beyond an optimal level (about 7,500 kilometers of per capita annual motor vehicle travel overall, although this varies depending on geographic and economic factors), the economic costs of increased vehicle travel outweigh the marginal benefits (Kenworthy, et al. 1997).


Personal automobile ownership and use is associated with economic development, but this occurs primarily because economic development increases wealth, which allows these expenditures. There is no evidence that high levels of per capita automobile use increases economic productivity and development. Most developing countries experience their greatest periods of economic growth when the rate of automobile ownership is relatively low, and growth rates generally decline as a country devotes more resources to consumer goods.


High levels of automobile dependency can reduce economic development in several ways. Excessive vehicle expenses, road expenses, congestion, crash costs and pollution can increase overhead costs and damage some forms of economic activity (for example, excessive pollution may reduce tourist industry development). Money spent on automobile transportation diverts wealth that could otherwise be used for industrial investment.


Economic Development Impacts of Automobile Expenditures

The automobile industry is a major economic sector, so many people assume that vehicle ownership and use stimulate economic development. At one time it may have made sense to encourage automobile use as a way to take advantage of economies of scale in vehicle and road production, and to stimulate development of an automobile industry. During the middle of the Twentieth Century several countries successfully based their economic development on automobile manufacturing.


However, it is production and export of goods that supports economic development, not consumption. Expenditures on automobiles and fuel provide less regional economic development or employment than expenditures on most other goods because they are capital intensive and much of the value is imported from other regions (even if a vehicle is assembled in a developing country, most parts are imported). Although a region may benefit economically from motor vehicle exports, there is no reason to think that domestic consumption of motor vehicles increases economic development.


The automobile industry is now overcapitalized. World vehicle production capacity is expected to exceed demand by 30% or more over the next few years, making vehicle production extremely competitive. As a result, automobile manufacturing is less profitable than many other industries and may become even less profitable in the future. Many other industries now pay comparable or better wages, and manufacturers demand various financial incentives from governments  (tax rebates, infrastructure expenditures and training programs) in exchange for locating industrial facilities in a jurisdiction that absorb much of their regional economic benefits. It is now very difficult for countries to develop a profitable and independent vehicle manufacturing industry that will produce significant exports.



Implementing TDM in Developing Regions

Developing regions vary greatly in their geographic, demographic and economic conditions. TDM Planning should reflect local conditions and needs. Transportation planning in developing countries often requires consideration of special impacts or issues, including impacts that motor vehicle traffic can have on Nonmotorized Transport, domestic and wild animals, land use, cultural and natural sites, Tourism, Safety and various Equity issues. As a result, it is particularly important to involve stakeholders and account for all Costs.


Demand management faces several obstacles in developing countries, including an assumption that automobile travel is superior and more modern than alternative modes, so demand management reduces economic development and progress, and the tendency of transport policy and planning decision-making to be dominated by higher-income residents who rely on automobile travel (Thynell, Mohan and Tiwari 2010). Political acceptance therefore requires education concerning the benefits of TDM to motorists, and negotiation to insure that lower-income resident’s interests are considered in transport policy and planning decisions. For example, it is important to show that Public Transport improvements and efficient Parking Pricing are cost effective ways to reduce traffic and parking congestion problems. It is useful to point out that many developed countries are now implementing transportation reforms to create more balanced, less automobile-dependent transportation systems. Developing countries can avoid future problems by implementing such reforms before they become highly automobile dependent.


It is important to develop long-term goals and objectives that are realistic, cost effective and equitable. Solutions that may be appropriate in wealthy countries are often less appropriate in developing regions. Implementing TDM often involves policies that support existing transport systems and constrain automobile use. This involves applying Market Principles to transportation to avoid underpricing motor vehicle use or favoring it in policies and transportation planning.


One TDM strategy that can be particularly appropriate in developing countries is to eliminate vehicle fuel subsidies (where they exist), and implement, gradual and predictable (less than 10% at any time) long-term Fuel Tax Increases (Metschies 2005). At a minimum, fuel taxes should cover basic roadway expenditures (a minimum tax of about 10¢ per liter), or more to fund other transport sector expenditures (including subsidies for rail and public transit services), and contribute to general funds.



Best Practices


·         Base transportation planning on local conditions and needs. Avoid high-cost solutions that reflect the needs and resources in developed countries.


·         Develop Accessible land use patterns. Implement Smart Growth practices that encourage efficient development.


·         Maintain and develop a balanced transportation system which provides a high level of mobility and access to non-drivers. Avoid policy, planning or investment practices that favor automobile travel over other modes or lead to automobile dependency.


·         Value and protect nonmotorized transportation. Invest in Nonmotorized Improvements. Avoid policies and projects that degrade pedestrian and cycling conditions, such as new highways that divide existing communities or eliminate walkways. Use Traffic Calming to control vehicle traffic volumes and speeds, particularly in urban neighborhoods.


·         Use Comprehensive Planning. Use Least Cost Planning to maximize transportation system efficiency.


·         Account for Environmental, Community Livability and Health factors in transportation planning.


·         Use Transportation Planning practices that involve stakeholders in decision making.


·         Apply Full Cost Pricing to automobile travel, including Road Pricing, Parking Pricing and appropriate Fuel Taxes or Distance-based Charges.


·         Encourage Transportation Choice, including Nonmotorized Improvements, Universal Access, Transit Improvements, Shuttle Services, Ridesharing, Taxi and Carsharing.


·         Implement appropriate regulations and restrictions on motor vehicle use, including traffic safety and environmental regulations, Vehicle Restrictions and Car-free Planning. Develop enforcement systems that insure compliance.


·         Perform travel demand surveys that include poor and minority populations to provide credible information on the how and how much people travel (SADoT 2003; Mahadevia, Joshi and Datey 2013; Van Maarseveen, Zuidgeest and Brussel 2014).


·         Consider impacts on Nonmotorized Transportation in transportation planning and project evaluation.


·         Manage Nonmotorized Facilities to insure efficient and equitable use of sidewalks and paths.


·         Use Sustainable Transportation principles.


·         Use Tourist Transport Management to minimize economic, social and environmental harm from tourist and recreational travel.


Wit and Humor

“Do not think of today’s failures, but of the success that may come tomorrow. You have set yourselves a difficult task, but you will succeed if you persevere; and you will find joy in overcoming obstacles. Remember, no effort that we make to attain something beautiful is ever lost.” – Helen Keller



Examples and Case Studies


Innovative Transportation Solutions in Curitiba, Brazil

Curitiba, capital of the Brazilian state Paraná 400 km south east of São Paulo, has over the last 30 years developed a high-quality, cost-effective public transport system. Today it stands as a model recognized internationally. Insightful, long term planning with several innovative solutions has provided the citizens with an effective system that gives priority to public instead of private transport. It has the highest user rates of all Brazilian state capitals, 75% of all weekday commuters. All this during a period of unprecedented city growth.



Walkability Improvements (Leather, et al. 2011)

A survey of pedestrians in 13 Asian cities found that:


The analysis indicates a lack of relevant policies, dedicated institutions, and political support to support walkability. Proper allocation and use of funds for pedestrian facilities are also identified as major issues throughout Asia.


Based on these findings the study made various recommendations for improving walkability and pedestrian conditions in Asian cities. City governments are identified as the key stakeholder group for pedestrian facility development and implementation. National governments and civil society (professional and non-profit organizations) and development agencies can also play important roles. They also recommend changing transport system performance indicators to better evaluate walking conditions, and developing appropriate roadway and pedestrian facility design guidelines, since existing guidelines are often ambiguous, inequitable, or not enforced.



Bogota, Columbia Transport Initiatives (

The city of Bogota, Columbia has a diverse program to improve transportation choices and encourage non-automobile modes. They include:

·         TransMilenio, a high-capacity public transportation system using articulated buses and convenient, magnetic ticketing.

·         Bikeways. 120 existing and 180 planned kilometers of cycle paths.

·         Walkways. Construction of sidewalks and shaded walkways (“alamedas”) throughout the city.

·         Increased parking fees.

·         Pico y Placa. Restrictions on private automobile travel, based on each vehicle’s license-plate number.

·         Car-Free Day. An annual Car-Free day.



Because this program includes restrictions on automobile travel it was initially controversial. In October, 2000 a public referendum on the program received more than 62% yes votes indicating a high level of public support.



Africa Safe Routes to School (

The majority of Tanzania's urban dwellers face chronic mobility problems including: high proportions of family income needed for daily travel; long travel distances due to fast city growth; a poor route infrastructure network, especially for walking and cycling; and a high number of traffic accidents involving non-motorized transport users.


These problems are even worse for school children, who are sometimes denied access on private buses. Female students are sometimes forced to engage in relationships with male drivers or conductors to facilitate easy entry in the private buses and many children suffer from poor attendance and late arrival at school. The cost of transport also limits access to schools and disrupts education, especially of female pupils.


The Association for Advancing Low Cost Mobility (AALOCOM) was formed to address the mobility needs of Tanzania's urban dwellers, starting with school children. The Safe Routes to School Demonstration Project is in the planning stages at the time of writing, but it is a spectacular example of a community responding to a community problem in a manner that is participatory, broad-based and open. AALOCOM recognizes that the success of the project depends on the participation of the different parties responsible. Using a broad base of stakeholders (parents, teachers, police, NGOs, transportation officials and decision makers), AALOCOM's participatory approach creates a sense of ownership and responsibility around child, pedestrian and cycling safety issues.


The project will be piloted in a medium sized city with significant traffic problems, using schools with a high percentage of children residing 2-3 kilometres away. It will focus on:



Rickshaw Trolley Community Solid Waste Collection (

Before the Rickshaw Trolley Community Solid Waste Collection system was introduced, solid waste in most of Mirzapur, India was collected from neighborhood streets in handcarts and then dumped in heaps on bigger streets. From these heaps it was lifted onto bullock carts or tractor trolleys by shovel or a hydraulic loader. While being loaded, tractor trolleys blocked traffic on the narrow streets. This was inefficient, unsanitary and undependable since the city could not afford to keep the loader operating and the staff could not manage to lift more than a little bit of the city's garbage. Eventually garbage actually blocked many streets and drains, and obstructed maintenance of the drainage and water supply systems. The public had lost confidence in the city services and there was little money available for new equipment.


Solid waste needed to be lifted from the street to tractor trolleys without hydraulic equipment. To do this the municipality in 1995 designed and introduced a loading platform with an access ramp for direct loading into parked tractor trolleys. Now 10 collection depots manage the city's daily solid waste. They use available space along street rights-of-way and do not interfere with traffic movement. To make operation of the depots feasible, the service area had to be increased. This was achieved through the introduction of a three-wheeled rickshaw trolley with a modified frame for easier pedaling, and a tilting bin for easy unloading, designed and built by local workshops. These easy to move rickshaw trolleys have twice the capacity of handcarts and double their service area to 400 meters.


This low-cost system has eliminated the need for hydraulic lifting throughout the city and dramatically reduced staff physical contact with solid waste. The improvement in city appearance has changed the public attitude toward the city. In addition, the municipality has even donated a rickshaw trolley for replication to the city of Aligarh, provided technical assistance to numerous municipalities from India and Nepal, and is exploring opportunities for private processing of compost.



Smart Growth Housing Policy (Isalou, Litman and Shahmoradi 2014; Isalou, et al. 2014)

Analysis of combined housing and transportation costs in Iranian cities indicates that households in more central locations spend less on combined housing and transportation costs than households in more automobile-dependent, urban fringe locations. This indicates that smart growth policies, which help create more accessible, multi-modal communities where most services and activities are available without a car increase overall affordability.



Village Bicycle Project (

The Accra bike tools program is a project of the Village Bicycle Project (VBP), a small non-profit organization dedicated to improving access to bicycles in Africa. The bike tools program delivers tools to bike mechanics while working towards developing the market for their long term supply. In 1999 VBP discovered that Accra, Ghana held a major supply center for used parts in the sub-region and that the majority of Accra's bike mechanics were not aware of tools specialized for bicycle repairs. They relied on hammers and chisels to remove and install parts, with high breakage in the process.


So in 2000, VBP brought about $1000 worth of bike tools, and began to show them to the bike mechanics. Many were initially wary to pay for tools they had never seen so VBP sold them well below cost. As one mechanic said, "These tools help my business very much. It was very difficult to rebuild a rear wheel before, you usually would break the free [freewheel] before it would come off; a new free [freewheel] costs 22,000 Cedis [US $4]. I use the free remover twice and it is paid for."


The Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP) donated tools the following year, and as mechanics became more familiar with the tools, they were willing to pay higher prices. By the end of 2001, prices for some tools had reached wholesale US prices. ITDP then was able connect tools suppliers in Asia with our partners in Ghana, and loaned them $1000 for purchase. Once they had established good credit with the tools program, the VBP extended $4,000 worth of used bicycles to two Accra mechanics. They refurbished and resold the bicycles, and netted $1,500 after repaying VBP for the bicycles.



Malaysian TDM Solutions (

Growing motor vehicle ownership and use are imposing significant costs on the Malaysian economy and environment. Kasipillai and Chan (2008) recommend transport demand management solutions to create more sustainable transportation:

1. More efficient road taxes and vehicle insurance pricing.

2. Elimination of fuel subsidies.

3. Increased fuel taxes and vehicle ownership taxation based on fuel efficiency.

4. Congestion charging, particularly in Kuala Lumpur.

5. More rational national road pricing.



Ghana (

In tackling transport and rural development issues, Ghana faces a host of common challenges: environmental degradation; urban gridlock; the cost of road repair and fuel; health problems for women from carrying heavy loads; and a shortage of foreign exchange for vehicles, parts and construction equipment. Fortunately, Ghana has chosen some innovative projects designed to address these issues in a way that meets the needs of the government, its citizens, and the environment. It is hoped that by improving rural quality-of-life, urbanization trends and the demand for expensive urban infrastructure can be reduced. Three current projects are briefly profiled here.

1. New Road Design. The Department of Roads & Highways is now designing rural roads using new standards taking into account the needs of the generally non-motor vehicle using population. One readily apparent result of the change is a 'single-blade' (4m or 13ft) compacted road. But the far more important products of the program are the change in the production process and the changes to social structure and the resource base and allocation -- because of the changes in design standards, a road can be built most economically by labor intensive methods (costing 10-15% less than with mechanical methods), more rural employment is generated and there is growth in the local economy supplying the projects.

The road program also includes a street-tree component, where citizens plant and maintain trees on both sides of the road, providing great relief to non-motorized travelers. Wells for safe drinking water are being drilled as part of the program.

2. Transportation Rehabilitation Project. One aspect of this project is the development and initial production of 250 bicycle trailers and promotion of bicycles for women. Surveys of women show that the equipment was readily accepted as a substitute for head-portage. Women have avidly taken to using the bicycle and trailer and there has been no cultural resistance to the change. The main problem identified is a lack of money or access to credit to buy the vehicles. This obstacle is being overcome by the purchase of the trailers by local NGO's, who then sell them to community members on installment payback schemes.

3. The Ministry Of Local Government's Bicycle Program. Ghana is currently pursuing a decentralization and democratization process, but many of the 7,260 members and staff members of the new district assemblies have had trouble attending assembly and committee meetings and visiting constituents. The problem is most acute in the north where some areas are served by vehicles only once a week, roads are bad and bridges are weak. There are reports of assembly workers walking 50 km (31 miles) to perform assembly functions. However, the distances involved are moderate for bicycles, the terrain is flat and the weather lends itself to use of bicycles. Starting in 3 districts, the project is making bicycles available through a revolving fund on a hire-to-purchase plan. The program is starting with 200 one speed roadster bikes with the goal of getting 1000 bicycles.

The Transportation Rehabilitation program has met with good success and is now spurring employment by encouraging local entrepreneurs to produce trailers. The LG bicycle project is encouraging employment generation by training local youth to assemble, repair and maintain the bicycles. The road design program has so far trained 35 private contractors, employing over 3000 people. The target is for 70% of the employees to be women and to combine the employment with nutrition education and vitamin and mineral supplement (iron was specifically mentioned for women.) Each employee works for about 3 months, receives food and vitamin/mineral subsidies, earns US$145 and has access to a savings plan to buy a bicycle to use on the new roads. The education and coordination of the program is provided by local NGO's, helping to strengthen these community organizations and insure their long term presence in the community.

California Bicycle in Africa (

Recognizing the need for good-quality bicycles in African cities, the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP) teamed with US industry experts and independent African bike dealers to create the “Los Angeles Bike,” a six-speed utilitarian bicycle, the first in a series of bicycles to be designed under the California Bike name. By shouldering the risk of importing and distributing the bicycle throughout Africa, ITDP has begun bridging the gap between the small independent bicycle dealer and the international bicycle industry. Established in 2003, the California Bike Coalition (CBC) is a network of small independent bicycle dealers in Ghana, Senegal, South Africa and Tanzania. The aim of the network is to:



In addition to filling the existing need for good-quality bicycles in the general public, ITDP works to enable ownership for people who cannot afford a new bicycle. Employers throughout Africa are encouraging their employees to use bicycles by setting up Employee Purchase Programs (EPPs). This financing program allows employees to purchase California Bikes by paying for the bikes over time through paycheck deductions. Government agencies, healthcare organizations, and other groups also purchase bicycles for employees to use on the job or for commuting to and from work. ITDP helps facilitate these purchases and gives bike maintenance classes to new owners of California Bikes. Over 7,000 California Bikes have been distributed through the independent bicycle dealer network.



Community-Based Initiatives (GEF 2006)

The Global Environment Facility (GEF), in cooperation with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the World Bank and other development organizations has implemented a Small Grants Programme that supports community-based initiatives to encourage sustainable transportation development. Lessons and experiences documented demonstrate that community initiatives play an important role in testing new approaches, raising awareness of new ideas, piloting innovative strategies, and informing and stimulating policy dialogue in a cost-effective way.


For instance, community initiatives with local civil society organizations in Pune, India, prompted a policy shift by the city towards supporting bus rapid transit and the development of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure. In Chiang Mai, Thailand, the municipal government is re-allocating a portion of its transport funds towards non-motorized transport infrastructure. In other cases (e.g., Sri Lanka, Nepal, Kyrgyzstan, Poland, Jordan, Egypt, and Lithuania), sustainable transport community projects have resulted in government policy shifts and stimulated commercial activities, leading to sustainable strategies for addressing local transport challenges while benefiting the global climate.



Improving Urban Walkability in India (CSE 2009)

The report Footfalls: Obstacle Course To Livable Cities (CSE 2009) evaluates walking conditions in Indian cities. Although walking represents 16% to 57% of urban trips, walking conditions are poor, with little investment, insufficient road space, and inadequate design and maintenance standards. The study argues that inadequate support for nonmotorized travel is inefficient and inequitable.


Table 1             Indian Cities Mode Split, 2007 (Wilbur Smith 2008)








Public Transport


Auto Rickshaw


<500,000, plain terrain








<500,000, hilly terrain















































This table indicates the mode split in Indian cities. Walking is the dominant mode but receives little consideration in transport planning and investment.



The study developed a Transport Performance Index for evaluating urban transportation systems and prioritizing system improvements in Indian cities. It consists of the following factors:

·         Public Transport Accessibility Index (the inverse of the average distance (in km) to the nearest bus stop/railway station (suburban/metro).

·         Service Accessibility Index (% of Work trips accessible in 15 minutes time).

·         Congestion Index (average peak-period journey speed relative to a target journey speed).

·         Walkability Index (quantity and quality of walkways relative to roadway lengths).

·         City Bus Transport Supply Index (bus service supply per capita).

·         Para-Transit Supply Index (para-transit vehicle  supply per capita).

·         Safety Index (1/traffic fatalities per 100,000 residents).

·         Slow Moving Vehicle (Cycling) Index (availability of cycling facilities and cycling mode share).

·         On-street Parking Interference Index (1/(portion of major road length used for on-street parking + on-street parking demand).



Developing Country Transport Surveys and Demand Models

A few travel surveys and demand studies have been performed in developing countries and include impoverished residents. Below are examples. These can be used as models for travel surveys and demand modeling in other lower-income areas.


Judy Baker, Rakhi Basu, Maureen Cropper, Somik Lall and Akie Takeuchi (2005), Urban Poverty and Transport: The Case of Mumbai Policy, Research Working Paper 3693, World Bank (; at


Eric J. Gonzales, Celeste Chavis, Yuwei Li and Carlos F. Daganzo (2009), Multimodal Transport Modeling for Nairobi, Kenya: Insights and Recommendations with an Evidence-Based Model, Working Paper UCB-ITS-VWP-2009-5, UC Berkeley Center for Future Urban Transport; at


Jacob Koch, Luis Antonio Lindau, and Carlos David Nassi (2013), Transportation in the Favelas of Rio de Janeiro, Lincoln Institute (; at


E. Kwakye, P. Fouracre and D. Ofosu-Dorte (1997), “Developing Strategies To Meet The Transport Needs Of The Urban Poor In Ghana.” World Transport Policy and Practice, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 8-14; at


Debora Salon and Sumila Gulyani (2010), “Mobility, Poverty and Gender: Travel Choices of Slum Residents in Nairobi, Kenya,” Transport Reviews, Vol. 30, No. 5, pp. 641-657; summary at; earlier version at


Zhong Shuiying, Wei Han, Hou Weili and Cheng Dening (2003), A Lifetime of Walking: Poverty and Transportation in Wuhan, China, Economic Research Institute, Wuhan University; at


Sumeeta Srinivasan (2011), “Linking Travel Behavior and Location in Chengdu, China: Geographically Weighted Approach,” Transportation Research Record 2193, Transportation Research Board (, pp. 85-95; summary at


Sumeeta Srinivasan and Peter Rogers (2005). “Travel Behavior Of Low-Income Residents: Studying Two Contrasting Locations In The City Of Chennai, India,” Journal of Transport Geography, Vol. 13, pp. 265-274; summary at


C. Venter, V. Vokolkova and J. Michalek (2007), “Gender, Residential Location, And Household Travel: Empirical Findings From Low-Income Urban Settlements In Durban, South Africa,” Transport Reviews, Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 653-677; summary at



Trans-Africa Project (

The Trans-Africa project aims to promote public transport in Sub-Saharan Africa, taking account the unique challenges in that region. It is led by a Consortium formed by the International Association of Public Transport (UITP), the African Association of Pubic Transport (UATP) and the European Union.


The Report On Statistical Indicators Of Public Transport Performance In Sub-Saharan Africa (UITP 2010) provides information urban population and area, vehicle ownership, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, portion of household budget devoted to transport, roadway supply, percentage of paved roads, number of vehicles by mode (motorcycles, cars, buses, trucks), capacity (seats) and occupancy per vehicle,  average annual kilometers per vehicle, annual passengers per transit vehicle, daily trips per transit vehicle, mode share (walking, cycling, motorcycle, private car, private taxi, public transit, informal public transit, etc.), annual roadway investments, annual investments in public annual private car operating costs, annual fuel consumption per vehicle, annual operating costs of public transit vehicles, transit, annual public transit revenue, transit fares, traffic fatalities, vehicle air pollutants, and average traffic speeds.



Transport Policy Reforms for Arab Environment and Development (AFED 2011)

The report, Green Economy: Sustainable Transition in a Changing Arab World by the Arab

Forum for Environment and Development (AFED) identifies transportation policies that promote sustainable development and reduce poverty. It defines green transportation in broad terms to mean the provision of safe, affordable, and reliable mobility options that are energy efficient, while minimizing pollution, congestion, and random urban sprawl. It discusses the implications of green transport on economic growth, social cohesion, and environmental sustainability.


Common problems include:


In response, the report recommends:

appropriate technical expertise.



Green Transportation System In Korea

Korea has several transport policy and planning programs to support more sustainable transportation, as summarized in Table 2. These strategies increase overall resource efficiency, which supports national economic development and consumer affordability, as well as environmental objectives.


Table 2             Strategy and Policies for Low-carbon Green Growth (KOTI 2011)


Core Policies

Expanding green transportation capital

• A rail-centered transportation system

• Bicycle infrastructure

•Green logistics

• Green airports

Creating green transportation cities

• High-density mixed-use urban development around KTX stations

• Public transit-oriented compact cities

• Green pedestrian space

Enhancing transportation demand management

• Congestion pricing (Eco-pass)

• Compulsory implementation of congestion management programs

• Transport carbon emissions evaluation and emissions charging systems

Securing green lifestyle support system

• Income tax deduction for public transit expenses

•Green car insurance

• promotion of bicycle use

• Promotion of environmentally-friendly cars

Developing and applying green technology development and application

• Green power plants using transportation facilities

• Bike rapid transit

• Wireless power supply-based transportation systems

• Smart grids

• Intelligent bicycles

• U-Transportation

Consolidating the foundation for green transportation promotion

• Improving transportation investment evaluation systems

• Green transportation development evaluation system

Promoting South-North green transportation

• Inter-Korean peace waterway



These include:



International Urban Transportation Planning (JICA 2011)

The report, Research on Practical Approach for Urban Transport Planning by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) summarize the Agency’s research on the factors that affect public transit demand and system efficiency, and therefore the type of transit system most suited to various types of cities. It includes detailed analysis of the relationships between factors including city size and growth rates, population density, income or GDP, vehicle ownership, mode share, transit service type (metro rail, Bus Rapid Transit, and conventional bus), and types of urban transportation problem (traffic congestion, high accident rates, pollution, lack of public transit service, crowded transit and social inequity), based on comprehensive data from 398 major cities around the world, including 65 cities where JICA has conducted helped develop urban transport master plans. This information is used to help provide guidelines to determine, for example, what cities should develop metro rail or BRT systems and other urban transportation improvement strategies.


Parking Management in Rapidly Developing Cities

The Parking Guidebook for Chinese Cities (Weinberger, et al. 2013) identifies international strategies for efficiently managing parking resources in urban areas that are experiencing increased motorization and perceived parking shortages, in ways that support strategic, long-term goals. A special section focusing on Guangzhou serves as a case study of one particular Chinese city coming to grips with how to approach growing motorization and the seemingly unyielding demand for parking in the best possible way. It recommends these eight strategies:

1.      Establish a centralized management of all parking activities.

2.      Implement performance standards for parking management.

3.      Use Appropriate Technology for Payment and Data Collection.

4.      Reduce or eliminate parking minimums, establish maximum allowances or area-wide parking caps.

5.      Decouple land use from off-street parking requirements and implement shared parking.

6.      Price or tax off-street parking according to Market Cost.

7.      Enhance enforcement with electronic technology and physical design.

8.      Provide clear information on parking supply to ensure its effective use.



Indian Climate Plan Includes Curbs Private Cars

Times of India, by Nitin Sethi & Mahendra Kumar Singh, 15 Dec 2008



NEW DELHI: Owning and using private vehicles could become a lot tougher if proposals made by the National Action Plan on Climate Change are implemented.


Alarmed by the burgeoning growth of private vehicles in Indian cities and the resultant rise in fuel emissions, a panel under the action plan has suggested a slew of measures that promise to change the face of urban transport. At the heart of these recommendations is the understanding that all-round costs of using personal vehicles need to be raised even as public transport is strengthened.


The measures - proposed by the Mission on Sustainable Habitat under the action plan being prepared by the urban development ministry -include making ownership of parking space compulsory for those wishing to buy new private vehicles, making parking fee reflect the cost of land, imposing a congestion charge and making parts of the city off limits for cars.


The mission document is being prepared to detail what the PM's council on climate change had passed in principle a few months ago. The report notes that growth of registered vehicles is four times the rate of growth of population in six major metros - Delhi, Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Mumbai and Chennai. Simultaneously the share of public transport has declined from 69% to 38% in the 1994-2007 period in cities with population above 4 million.


It warns that the fuel consumption for road vehicles, if unchecked, would be six times the 2005 level by 2035 and greenhouse gas emissions would go up 5.8 times in the 30-year period. The mission has recommended dedicating select corridors to only public transport, limiting the availability of parking space in city centres, banning parking on arterial roads, charging higher parking rates at peak hours, make street parking steep and reducing the use of diesel propelled private vehicles besides other measures.


While this may seem like a wish list many experts have recommended before, as part of the climate change action plan, many of these ideas have a good chance of getting implemented for the first time. The mission document is to be shared with the PM's climate change council before it gets operational.


"The Centre provides funds for urban development. We would build these into the city and municipal plans that we fund in consultation with states and the respective cities," said a senior official in the urban development ministry, explaining how the recommendations would be turned into regulations.


The mission document also recommends creation of a regulatory body which will lay down minimum basic service standards for the industry, impose heavy fines, suspend or even cancel licenses and prosecute the erring agencies or individuals. There's also a proposal for a dedicated urban transport fund to pump money into running public transport better in urban areas.


Endorsing the moves by the power ministry, it has also backed the imposition of tough fuel efficiency norms for vehicles and gone further to recommend that government's purchase of vehicles should be done keeping fuel efficiency in mind. To back innovation and improvement in technology the mission has asked for fiscal incentives linked to fuel economy of the vehicles.



Transport Policy Emission Impact Evaluation (

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is committed to assisting developing member countries (DMCs) in moving their economies onto low-carbon growth paths and to reduce their carbon emissions. The Bank has developed models for evaluating how specific transport policy decisions affect energy consumption and pollution emissions. It has expanded it policy and project economic evaluation to consider indirect impacts, including the effects of generated traffic, and co-benefits of demand management. This project has identified many cost effective and beneficial ways to improve overall transport system efficient and reduce emissions.



Predicting Future Mobility in Developing Countries (Ecola, et al. 2014)

The report, The Future of Driving in Developing Countries identified various factors that affect motor vehicle ownership and use, including demographics (the portion of residents who work), incomes, geography (development density and travel distances), vehicle infrastructure (the quality and price of using roads and parking facilities), fuel price, vehicle ownership policies (such as vehicle taxes and registration fees), quality of alternatives to driving, the political influence of domestic oil and vehicle production industries, and the favorability of car culture (whether popular culture, attitudes toward the environment and consumer attitudes, and perceptions) favor automobile travel over other modes. This analysis framework is used to develop a predictive model of motorization.


The results indicate that although motor vehicle ownership and use tend to increase as during a country’s period of motorization, as incomes increase from very low to moderate, at high incomes they tend to saturate, and the level of saturation varies significantly depending on geographic factors and public policies. This explains why, for example, per capita vehicle travel has saturated at about 4,000 annual kilometers in Japan, 7,000 annual kilometers in Germany, 10,000 annual kilometers in Australia and 15,000 kilometers in the United States.



Multi-Modal Planning in Historic Istanbul (Gehl Architects 2013)

Istanbul’s Historic Peninsula is one of the most important urban areas in the world: an area of extraordinary beauty where 8,500 years of human history and culture embrace the sea. It is home to tens of thousands of residents and 2.5 million daily visitors including workers, students, business owners, shoppers, tourists and worshippers. This puts undue strain on the area, especially the transport system, which is forced to accommodate more travelers in one day than the total population of most European cities. This area is currently strangled by unsustainable transport infrastructure. The network of old, narrow streets that gives the area its charm also makes it challenging to access the historic sites and to pass through the city walls to walk along the seashore.


EMBARQ Turkey, an international sustainable transportation advocacy group, commissioned one of the world’s leading planning organizations, Gehl Architects, to develop a comprehensive sustainable transportation plan titled, Istanbul: An Accesable City – A City For People which includes comprehensive data on walking, cycling and public transit conditions, detailed analysis, and specific recommendations for creating a more livable, sustainable, and more economically competitive city. It is a beautiful document which could serve as a model for livable community planning in other cities.



Developing Country Urban Transportation Planning

The report, Research on Practical Approach for Urban Transport Planning by the Japan International Cooperation Agency includes a detailed review of the factors that affect urban travel demands, including city size, density, incomes, vehicle ownership and public transit provision, and provides guidance for determining when and what type of transportation investments and policies are most suitable. It identifies various planning objectives (congestion reduction, traffic safety, environmental protection and social equity), and how these impacts and their solutions vary by city size and level of development (i.e. per capita GDP). This evaluation framework is used to recommend the most appropriate transportation policies and programs for specific developing country cities, including an extensive set of potential TDM strategies.



Indian Urban Transport Strategy (NTDPC 2012)

India’s National Transport Development Policy Committee (NTDPC) produced a comprehensive urban transportation policy which identifies strategic goals, objectives, policy reforms and professional capacity building needed to create more efficient and equitable transport systems. It emphasizes the need to Avoid, Shift and Improve urban transport systems. It states that a shift from personal vehicles to other mass transit and non-motorized modes is necessary to reduce energy demand from cities. The share of public transport on the average should be aimed at 60% of motorized trips and 35% of total trips including walk. Measures such as road congestion, fuel and parking pricing, restrictions on vehicles use, road space reallocation, priority for bus and non-motorized modes, and flexible work hours are promoted. World experience has shown that an effective shift to public transport can occur only if transport demand management measures are adopted in tandem with increased provision of public transport.



Bogotá Bicycling Programs (

Bogotá, Columbia’s reputation as a bike-friendly city dates to the late 1990s with two mayors that promoted bicycles as a viable mode of transportation and developed bikeways and other infrastructures. Bogotá currently has 392 km (243 miles) of bikeways. The development of bikeways and other infrastructures is crucial to bicycle promotion. The city is now constructing in-road bike lanes, and is integrating bicycles with Bus Rapid Transit. As a result:



Innovative Bus Systems In India (EMBARQ 2014)

There is now a paradigm shift towards public transport, with strengthened policies and investment, and formal systems of high quality and capacities. EMBARQ India is providing practical information and training to help support these changes.


The report, Bus Karo – A Guidebook on Bus Planning & Operations, published in 2009 with support from India’s Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India provides practitioners, planners, operators and researchers, examined advancements and best practices of public bus services around the world. This included:

• Strong political leadership in the decisionmaking process

• Leadership by local institutions in the technical planning for route reorganisation

• Implementation of bus priority strategies

• Use of technology

• Innovations in contracting and tendering

• Need for managed subsidies to improve quality of service

• System performance monitoring and user feedback



The report, Bus Karo 2.0 – Case Studies from India by EMBARQ India provides more comprehensive guidance on all aspects of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) planning and operations, including the design of routes and support infrastructure, operations management, driving training, technology applications, branding and marketing, and financing models. This report uses real case studies from various Indian cities to demonstrate the large efficiency gains and benefits that BRT systems can provide. 


The Bus Karo Programme works to improve city bus service in Indian cities. The programme is designed to build capacity, provide technical support and share best practices in the field of urban bus transport in India. The initiative is a best-practice and peer-to-peer learning network, where the implementation of pilot projects brings about significant outcomes. The programme has three primary aspects:

Mentoring Transit: Partnering with public transport agencies through support from experts to aid the implementation of pilot projects designed to enhance city bus services.

Talking Transit: Organising workshops and facilitating discussions in which public transport authorities can gather to discuss strategies and hurdles to achieving sustainable transport. This also provides an opportunity for peer-to-peer capacity building.

Learning Transit: Facilitating the sharing of best practices through the documentation and distribution of international and India-specific cases of city bus services.


he Bus Karo v2.0 Guidebook is part of EMBARQ India’s efforts towards facilitating this peer-to-peer learning. It provides an overview of the current state of affairs regarding the urban public transport system in India.



Developing Country Travel Demand Surveys

Comprehensive and accurate travel statistics are critical for transportation planning. Some jurisdictions and researchers have performed travel demand surveys in developing countries. In 2003 the South African Department of Transportation commissioned that country’s first National Household Travel Survey which sampled more than 50,000 residents, a larger than normal sample size for such a survey in order to ensure credible statistical data for all major demographic and geographic groups concerning both motorized and non-motorized travel (SADoT). During April and May 2012, researchers completed 2,068 travel survey interviews in three Rio de Janeiro favelas (informal, low-income communities) which provided information on vehicular ownership, non-motorized transport, modal share, vehicle parking, perception of road safety, plus data on the destination, mode, timing and purpose of 4,336 unique trips (Koch, Lindau and Nassi 2013).



Critical Evaluation of Indian Urban Transport (Mahadevia, Joshi and Datey 2013)

The report, Low-Carbon Mobility in India and the Challenges of Social Inclusion: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Case Studies in India critically evaluates the degree that urban transportation systems serve low-income households and other disadvantaged groups. It uses travel demand survey to evaluate walking, cycling and public transit activity, and consumer expenditure survey data to evaluate transportation affordability. It discusses the quality and utility of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems in various Indian cities, and identifies various problems and potential improvement strategies.


India’s National Urban Transport Policy (NUTP) emphasizes the importance of building ‘streets for people’ rather than simply maximizing motor vehicle traffic speeds. It also emphasizes the need to improve transit service for disadvantaged groups. This offers an opportunity to improve public transit services and develop BRT systems, particularly because BRT tends to provide better service than buses operating in mixed traffic, but are cheaper and more flexible than metro rail systems. However, of the 63 cities eligible for national transportation funds, only about 10 built BRT systems, out of which only Ahmedabad, Delhi, Pune and Jaipur have dedicated bus lanes. Some roadway expansion projects that were planned as BRT lanes have been converted to general traffic lanes, and some BRT infrastructure badly designed, built or maintained, resulting in poor service quality.  In Ahmedabad, there was no attempt to integrate the BRTS with existing municipal bus services and many previous bus lines were closed, and in Delhi there is political pressure to remove BRT lanes. Some Indian cities have developed well-used walking and bicycle facilities as part of transportation improvement programs, but others have failed to develop such facilities.


Indian cities experience major problems sharing road space amongst all users. Even facilities designed for pedestrians, cyclists and buses are often appropriated by motorised vehicles. For example, in Delhi, the traffic police control the signal cycle at the junctions, and they have designed it to favour the mixed traffic more than buses. Traffic police have also refused to limit motorised two-wheelers encroaching the cycle tracks. Sometimes inappropriate design of infrastructure has led to a lack of usage. For example, in Ahmedabad, footpaths and cycle tracks have not been designed and built for all the corridors, compromising the safety and access of pedestrians and cyclists, and some cycle tracks have faulty designs that discourages cyclists from using them. Another common conflict and barrier to efficient urban transportation involves motor vehicles parking on footpaths, cycle tracks and bus lanes. Most vehicle parking is unpriced.



References And Resources For More Information


Asghar Abdoli, et al. (2014), “Urban Development of Zone22 of Tehran's Municipality Toward Smart Growth Strategy,” Environmental Management and Sustainable Development, Vol. 3, No. 1 (, pp. 61-73; at


Access Exchange International ( is a non-profit organization that promotes cost-effective access to public transportation for disabled persons in developing countries. 


ADB (2009), Changing Course: A New Paradigm for Sustainable Urban Transport, Asian Development Bank (; at


ADB (2010), Reducing Carbon Emissions from Transport Projects, Asian Development Bank (; at and


ADUPC (2009), Abu Dhabi Urban Street Design Manual, Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (; at It includes an Online Street Design Tool (


ADUPC (2013), Abu Dhabi Public Realm Design Manual, Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (; at


AFED (2011), “Transportation,” Arab Green Economy Report, Arab Forum for Environment and Development (; at


African Centre of Excellence in Public and Non-Motorised Transport (ACET) ( aims to produce better transport system analytical methods and models, for infrastructural development in a region where pedestrians and para-transit are important.


Anvita Arora and Geetam Tiwari (2007), A Handbook for Socio-economic Impact Assessment (SEIA) of Future Urban Transport (FUT) Projects, Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Program (TRIPP), Indian Institute of Technology (; at


Marlon G. Boarnet (2007), Conducting Impact Evaluations in Urban Transport, Doing Impact Analysis Report 5, World Bank (; at


Paul Barter (2010) Parking Policy in Asian Cities, Asian Development Bank (; at Also see


Rahman Paul Barter and Tamim Raad (2000), Taking Steps: A Community Action Guide to People-Centred, Equitable and Sustainable Urban Transport, SUSTRAN Network (; at


Beijing Transport Demand Management ( aims to identify and evaluate suitable non-technical measures to reducing vehicle traffic and associated pollution emissions.


Rakesh Belwal and Shweta Belwal (2010), “Public Transportation Services in Oman: A Study of Public Perceptions,” Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 13, No. 4; at


Susanne Böhler-Baedeker and Hanna Hüging (2012), Urban Transport and Energy Efficiency, Sustainable Urban Transport Project ( Asia and GIZ; at


Daniel Bongardt, Dominik Schmid, Cornie Huizenga and Todd Litman (2011), Sustainable Transport Evaluation: Developing Practical Tools for Evaluation in the Context of the CSD Process, Commission on Sustainable Development, United Nations Department Of Economic And Social Affairs (; at


Andrea Broaddus, Todd Litman and Gopinath Menon (2009), Training Document On Transportation Demand Management, Sustainable Urban Transport Project ( and GTZ (


Major Desman Brown (2006), Urban Public Bus Transportation in Developing Countries: A Roadmap For Successful Planning, Desmon Brown (


CCAP (2010), Transportation NAMAs: A Proposed Framework , Center for Clean Air Policy (; at


Centre For Science And Environment (CSE) ( is a network of professionals interested in environmental and sustainable development issues, located in New Delhi, India.


China Sustainable Transport Center ( supports sustainable city planning, the sustainable transportation design, and research on relevant policies in China.


Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities (CAI-Asia) ( promotes and demonstrates innovative ways to improve the air quality of Asian cities through partnerships and sharing experiences.


Copal Publishing ( publishes books on planning and architecture with an emphasis on Indian cities.


CODATU (2009), Who Pays What For Urban Transport? Handbook Of Good Practices, Cooperation For Urban Mobility In The Developing World (; at


Felix Creutzig and Dongquan He (2009), “Climate Change Mitigation And Co-Benefits Of Feasible Transport Demand Policies In Beijing,” Transportation Research D, Vol. 14, pp. 120-131; at


CSE (2009), Footfalls: Obstacle Course To Livable Cities, Right To Clean Air Campaign, Centre For Science And Environment (; at


Carlos F. Daganzo, Yuwei Li, Eric J. Gonzales and Nikolas Geroliminis (2007), City-Scale Transport Modeling: An Approach for Nairobi, Working Paper UCB-ITS-VWP-2007-4, UC Berkeley Center for Future Urban Transport; at


Joyce Dargay, Dermot Gately and Martin Sommer (2007), Vehicle Ownership and Income Growth, Worldwide: 1960-2030, New York University; at


Despacio and ITDP (2013), Practical Guidebook: Parking And Travel Demand Management Policies In Latin America, Despacio and Institute for Transportation and Development Policy ( for the InterAmerican Development Bank; at


DFID ( by the UK Department for International Development presents information about transport-related strategies for supporting development in lower-income countries. The DFID-sponsored report Social Benefits in Transport Planning (, describes methodologies for more comprehensive transportation project evaluation.


DFID (2010), Children, Transport and Mobility in Sub-Saharan Africa: Developing a Child-Centred Evidence Base to Improve Policy and Change Thinking Across Africa, Department of International Development (


DFID (2013), Social Dimensions of Transport –A Resource for Social Impact Appraisals, UK Department for International Develoment (; at


Chhavi Dhinghi (2011), Measuring Public Transport Performance- Lessons For Developing Cities: Sustainable Transport Sourcebook, Sustainable Urban Transport Project ( Asia and GIZ; at


Boubacar Diallo (2010), “Roads That Serve The Neediest Users, Yet All Too Often Kill Them In The Process,” Routes-Roads, N° 347, World Road Association (; at


Despacio (


Liisa Ecola, et al. (2014), The Future of Driving in Developing Countries, RAND Institute for Mobility Research (; at


Debra Efroymson (2012), Moving Dangerously, Moving Pleasurably: Improving Walkability in Dhaka; Using a BRT Walkability Strategy to Make Dhaka’s Transportation Infrastructure Pedestrian-Friendly, Asian Development Bank (; at


EMBARQ ( promotes environmentally and financially sustainable transport solutions to improve quality of life in cities.


EMBARQ India (2009), Bus Karo: A Guidebook on Planning and Operations, EMBARQ India (; at


EMBARQ India (2014), Bus Karo 2.0 – Case Studies from India, EMBARQ India (; at


Shenggen Fan and Connie Chan-Kang (2005), Road Development, Economic Growth, And Poverty Reduction In China, International Food Policy Research Institute (


Fix The City Blog ( provides information on urban transportation improvements, particularly in developing countries.


Graham Floater and Philipp Rode (2014a), Cities and the New Climate Economy: the Transformative Role of Global Urban Growth, NCE Cities – Paper #1,  supporting paper commissioned by the London School of Economics’ LSE Cities program (, for the Global Commission on the Economy and Climate’s New Climate Economy Cities Program  (; at


Ríos Flores, et al. (2014), Practical Guidebook: Parking and Travel Demand Management Policies in Latin America, Inter-American Development Bank, (; at


GEF (2006), Environmentally Sustainable Transport And Climate Change: Experiences And Lessons From Community Initiatives, Global Environment Facility (; at


Gehl Architects (2010), Our Cities Ourselves: 10 Principles for Transport in Urban Life (; at


Gehl Architects (2013), Istanbul: An Accessable City – A City For People, EMBARQ Turkey (; at


Global Development Research Center ( provides extensive resources for development planning and evaluation.


Global Road Safety Partnership ( is an international partnership of private companies, government agencies and research organizations working to improve road safety in developing and transition countries.


Global Transport Knowledge Partnership ( provides resources and support to help transport practitioners in developing countries participate actively in, and contribute to, policy and technical developments globally.


GIZ (2011), Changing Course in Urban Transport- An Illustrated Guide, Sustainable Urban Transport Project ( Asia and GIZ; at


GIZ (2003-2012), Sustainable Transportation: A Sourcebook for Policy-Makers in Developing Countries, (, by the Sustainable Urban Transport Project – Asia ( and Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit ( Many of these documents are now available in various languages including Spanish, French, Chinese, Indonesian, Romanian, Thai and Vietnamese. The Mobility Management module is available at the VTPI website ( Preserving and Expanding the Role of Non-motorized Transport: Sustainable Transportation is available at the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy website (


Eric J. Gonzales, Celeste Chavis, Yuwei Li and Carlos F. Daganzo (2009), Multimodal Transport Modeling for Nairobi, Kenya: Insights and Recommendations with an Evidence-Based Model, Working Paper UCB-ITS-VWP-2009-5, UC Berkeley Center for Future Urban Transport; at


Erick Guerra (2015), “The Geography Of Car Ownership In Mexico City: A Joint Model Of

Households' Residential Location And Car Ownership Decisions,” Journal of Transport Geography, Vol. 43, Feb., pp 171-180; at


Institute for Transportation and Development Policy ( promotes socially equitable and environmentally sustainable transportation policies and projects worldwide.


International Conference on Parking Reforms for a Livable City, Centre for Science and Environment (, 17 August 2011, New Delhi; at Presentations:

Anumita Roy Chowdhury: Parking policy: Getting the principles right

Paul Barter: Promising Parking Policies Worldwide: Lessons for India?

Michael Kodransky: Europe’s Parking U-Turn 

Dr. Errampalli Madhu: Parking Pricing as TDM Tool 

Sanjiv N. Sahai: Parking Reforms for a Liveable City

Piyush Kansal: Parking Demand Management Study for Central Delhi

Abhijit Lokre: Parking Reforms for a Liveable City

Our Experiments with Parking

Parking Reforms for Liveable City : Hyderaba


International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives ( provides tools to help communities become healthier and more environmentally responsible.


International Forum for Rural Transport and Development (IFRTD) ( is a global network of organizations and individuals working to improve accessibility and mobility in rural communities. It also maintains a photo library (


International Institute for Energy Conservation ( has a number of useful documents on transport issues in Asia, Latin America, and Europe.


International Network for Urban Development ( encourages the exchange of information, experience and best practices on urban development and renewal across the world.


Ali A. Isalou, Todd Litman and Behzad Shahmoradi (2014), “Testing The Housing And Transportation Affordability Index In A Developing World Context: A Sustainability Comparison Of Central And Suburban Districts In Qom, Iran," Transport Policy, Vol. 33, May pp. 33-39;


Ali A. Isalou, Todd Litman, Kayoumars Irandoost and Behzad Shahmoradi (2014), “Evaluation of the Affordability Level of State-Sector Housing Built in Iran: Case Study of the Maskan-e-Mehr Project in Zanjan City,” Journal of Urban Planning and Development, Vol. 140 (


ITDP (2011), Better Street, Better Cities: A Guide To Street Design In Urban India, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (; at


ITDP (2012), Transforming Urban Mobility In Mexico: Towards Accessible Cities Less Reliant on Cars, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (; at


ITDP (2012), El Coche Nos…, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy ( and Trek Films; at, with English subtitles at


ITDP (2012), Manual De Implementación De Sistemas De Parquímetros Para Ciudades Mexicanas (Parking Meter System Deployment Manual for Mexican Cities), Institute for Transportation and Development Policy, Mexico City office (; at


ITDP (2012), The End of a Life Cycle: Urban Highways Offer Cities New Opportunities for Revitalization, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (; at  Also see, The Life and Death of Urban Highways, at


ITDP (2013), Implementación de Parquímetros en la Colonia Hipódromo De La Ciudad De México - Estudio De Línea Base (Parking Meter Implementation At The Mexico City Racetrack Area - Baseline Study), Institute for Transportation and Development Policy, Mexico City office (; at


ITDP (2014), Best Practice in National Support for Urban Transportation, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (; at


ITDP (2014), Menos Cajones, Más Ciudad: El Estacionamiento En La Ciudad De México, Mexico City Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (; at


ITDP (2015), Parking Guidebook for Beijing, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (; at


JICA (2011), The Research on Practical Approach for Urban Transport Planning, Japan International Cooperation Agency (; at


Chang Deok Kang and Robert Cervero (2008), From Elevated Freeway to Linear Park: Land Price Impacts of Seoul, Korea’s CGC Project, UCB-ITS-VWP-2008-7, Volvo Center for Future Urban Transport, University of California Berkeley (; at


Jeff Kenworthy, Felix Laube, Peter Newman and Paul Barter (1997), Indicators of Transport Efficiency in 37 Global Cities, Sustainable Transport Research Group, Murdoch University (, for the World Bank (; at


Jeyapalan Kasipillai and Pikkay Chan (2008), “Travel Demand Management: Lessons for Malaysia,” Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 11, No. 3, (, pp. 41-55; at


Jacob Koch, Luis Antonio Lindau, and Carlos David Nassi (2013), Transportation in the Favelas of Rio de Janeiro, Lincoln Institute (; at


Santhosh Kodukula (2011), Raising Automobile Dependency: How to Break the Trend?, GIZ Sustainable Urban Transport Project (; at


KOTI (2010 and 2011), Toward an Integrated Green Transportation System in Korea, Korea Transport Institute (


KwaZulu-Natal Department of Transport ( is a good example of a developing country transport agency that provides services and sponsors research.


James Leather (2009), Rethinking Transport and Climate Change, Asian Development Bank (; at


James Leather, Herbert Fabian, Sudhir Gota and Alvin Mejia (2011), Walkability and Pedestrian Facilities in Asian Cities: State and Issues, Sustainable Development Working Paper, Asian Development Bank (; at


Todd Litman (1998), “Transportation Cost Analysis; Applications in Developed and Developing Countries,” International Journal of Applied Economics and Econometrics, (formerly Indian Journal of Applied Economics), Vol. 7, No. 1, Jan.-Mar. 1998, pp. 115-137.


Todd Litman (2003), “Mobility Management” module ( of the Sustainable Transport Sourcebook, published by the Sustainable Urban Transport Project in Asia ( and GTZ (; at


Todd Litman (2009), Evaluating Transportation Economic Development Impacts, VTPI (; at


Todd Litman (2011), Pricing For Traffic Safety: How Efficient Transport Pricing Can Reduce Roadway Crash Risk, Victoria Transport Policy Institute (; at


Todd Litman (2011), “Transport Pricing Reforms for More Efficient Cities: Options and Impacts,” GEF–SUTP Quarterly Newsletter, Vol. 2/5; at

Todd Litman (2013), “The New Transportation Planning Paradigm,” ITE Journal (, Vo. 83, No. 6, pp. 20-28; at


Todd Litman (2014), Implementing Transport Policies and Programmes Toward Realizing 'Bali Vision Three Zeros - Zero Congestion, Zero Pollution, and Zero Accidents Towards Next Generation Transport Systems in Asia', keynote presentation for the Environmentally Sustainable Transport Forum in Asia and Better Air Quality Conference (, held 19-21 November in Colombo, Sri Lanka, sponsored by the United Nations Centre for Regional Development; at


Todd Litman (2014), Analysis of Public Policies that Unintentionally Encourage and Subsidize Sprawl, in partnership with the LSE Cities program ( ) for the New Climate Economy ( ); at


Todd Litman and Tom Rickert (2005), Evaluating Public Transit Accessibility: ‘Inclusive Design’ Performance Indicators For Public Transportation In Developing Countries, VTPI (; at


Darshini Mahadevia, Rutul Joshi and Abhijit Datey (2013), Low-Carbon Mobility in India and the Challenges of Social Inclusion: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Case Studies in India, CEPT University Centre for Urban Equity (, United Nations Environmental Program; at's/BRT_Casestudies_India_fullreport.pdf.


Gerhard Metschies (2009), International Fuel Prices, German Agency for Technical Cooperation (; at


Mobility ( is a southern African quarterly about integrated, sustainable and equitable land-use and transport policy and practice.


Dinesh Mohan (2013), “Moving Around in Indian Cities,” EPW Economic & Political Weekly, Vol. XLVIII No. 40; at


Dinesh Mohan (2013), Safety, Sustainability and Future Urban Transport, Eicher Group (; at


Peter Newman and Jeff Kenworthy (1999), Sustainability and Cities; Overcoming Automobile Dependency, Island Press (


NTDPC (2012), Working Group on Urban Transport Final Report, National Transport Policy Development Committee (, Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD), Government of India; at


OECD (2015), The Metropolitan Century: Understanding Urbanisation and its Consequences, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (; at


Sangjune Park (2009), “KRW 53 Trillion (5.4% of GDP), “Estimates of the External Costs of Transport in 2007,” KOTI World-Brief, Vol. 1, No. 3, Korea Transport Institute (, July, pp. 8-10; at


Enrique Peñalosa (2005), “The Role Of Transport In Urban Development Policy,” Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-makers in Developing Cities, published by the Sustainable Urban Transport Project – Asia ( and Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (


Zhong-Ren Peng, Jian (Daniel) Sun, and Qing-Chang Lu (2012), “China’s Public Transportation: Problems, Policies, and Prospective of Sustainability,” ITE Journal (, Vol. 82, No. 5, May, pp. 36-41; at


John Pucher and Ralph Buehler (2009), “Sustainable Transport that Works: Lessons from Germany,” World Transport Policy and Practice, Vol. 15, No. 1, May, pp. 13-46 (


Tom Rickert (1998 and 2002), Mobility for All; Accessible Transportation Around the World, and Making Access Happen: Promoting and Planning Transport For All, Access Exchange International (, and the Swedish Institute On Independent Living ( These excellent guides provide information on how to implement Universal Design in developing as well as developed countries.


Rural Transport Knowledge Base (\Intro.htm) is a set of reference and training material of the latest thinking and practice in the field of rural transport, including the Rural Transport Policy Toolkit.


SADoT (2003), Key Results Of The National Household Travel Survey: The First South African National Household Travel Survey, South Africa Department of Transport (; at


Robert Salter, Subash Dhar and Peter Newman (2011), Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation: Transport Sector, Risø Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, United Nations Environmental Program (; at


Andrés Sañudo, Xavier Treviño, Jimena Veloz and Salvador Medina (2013), “Impacts of the ecoParq program on Polanco,” Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (; at


Yash Saxena (2011), Parking Costs, Pricing and Revenue Calculator - Developing Country Edition, Victoria Transport Policy Institute (; at


Bradley Schroeder (2007), “Doing Business in Africa: The California Bike Coalition Comes of Age,” Sustainable Transport, No. 19; Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (, Fall 2007, pp. 18-30; at


Paul Starkey (2012), Non-motorised Transport Policy in Uganda, Ministry of Works and Transport and the United Nations Environment Programme (; at


Paul Starkey (2013), Rural Transport Service Indicators: Final Report, Africa Community Access Program (; at


Frederik Strompen, Todd Litman and Daniel Bongardt (2012), Reducing Carbon Emissions Through TDM Strategies - A Review of International Examples, Transportation Demand Management in Beijing ( GIZ and the Beijing Transportation Research Centre; at; summary at


SusTransSA (, provides sustainable transport information for South Africa. It is sponsored by Transportek, the transport division of the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).


Sustainable Urban Transport Project ( provides practical resources for creating sustainable transport policies and planning practices in developing cities.


SUTP (2010), Parking Management: A Contribution Towards Livable Cities, Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-Makers in Developing Countries (; at


Hiroaki Suzuki, Robert Cervero and Kanako Iuchi (2013), Transforming Cities with Transit: Transit and Land-Use Integration for Sustainable Urban Development, World Bank (; at


Tata Energy Research Institute ( in New Delhi, India, is the largest sustainable development research institution located in the developing world.


Nadaa Taiyab (2008), “Transportation in Mega-Cities: A Local Issue, A Global Question,” Issues In Brief, Number 4, The Frederick S. Pardee Center for the Study of the Longer-Range Future, Boston University; at


TCRP (2011), Public Transportation Systems as the Foundation for Economic Growth, Transit Cooperative Research Program, Transportation Research Board (


Marie Thynell (2009), Social Change and Urban Transport, Sustainable Urban Transit Technical Document #2, Sustainable Urban Transport Asia (; at


Marie Thynell, Dinesh Mohan and Geetam Tiwari (2010), “Sustainable Transport And The Modernisation Of Urban Transport In Delhi And Stockholm,” Cities, Vol. 27, December, pp. 421–429; summary at


John E. Thompson and Katsuhide Nagayama (2005), “Controlled Public Transit Fares in the Developing World: Help or Hindrance to the Urban Poor?,” ITE Journal, Vol. 75, No. 6 (, June, pp. 44-49.


Transport For Development Website (, UK Department for International Development, provides extensive information resources and links to research on developing region transportation.


Transport Demand Management in Beijing: Work In Progress ( ) by GIZ and the Beijing Transportation Research Center (


TransWeb ( by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) is a gateway to knowledge about Mobility & Access in the developing world, particularly in rural areas.


TRL (2004), Enhancing The Mobility Of Disabled People: Guidelines For Practitioners, Overseas Road Note 21, Transportation Research Laboratory, Transport for International Development (; at


Geetam Tiwari (2014), Planning And Designing Transport Systems To Ensure Safe Travel For Women, Paper 2014-04, International Transport Forum (; at


UITP (2010), Report On Statistical Indicators Of Public Transport Performance In Sub-Saharan Africa, International Association of Public Transport (;


UITP (2012), Better Urban Mobility in Developing Countries: Problems, Solutions and Good Practices, International Association of Public Transport (; at


United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (HABITAT) ( provides information on sustainable urban development and transportation.


UTTIPEC (2009), Pedestrian Design Guidelines: Don’t Drive…Walk, Delhi Development Authority, New Delhi (; at


UTTIPEC (2010), Parking Policy as a Travel Demand Management Strategy, Delhi Development Authority (; at


Martin Van Maarseveen, Mark Zuidgeest and Mark Brussel (2014), Development Of Courseware On NMT Situational Analysis, University Of Twente; at


Philip Verma, José Segundo López and Carlosfelipe Pardo (2015), Bogotá Bicycle Account (; at


Viva Cities ( is an international non-governmental organisation that promotes car-free residential areas and business districts, with extensive experience in developing countries.


Hans-Joachim Vollpracht (2010), “They Call Them Coffin Roads,” Routes-Roads, N° 347, World Road Association (; at


VREF (2012), The FUT Programme, Volvo Research and Education Foundation (; at


Armin Wagner (2007), Parking Management In Rapidly Emerging Cities, GTZ, Transport Policy Advisory Services, Sustainable Urban Transport Project  ( Asia and the German Technical Cooperation (; at


Walkability Asia ( supports walkability improvements in Asian countries.


Kevin Watkins (2012), Safe and Sustainable Roads: The Case for a Sustainable Development Goal, The Campaign For Global Road Safety (; at


Rachel Weinberger, et al. (2013), Parking Guidebook for Chinese Cities, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (; at


WHO (2013), Pedestrian Safety: A Road Safety Manual For Decision-Makers And Practitioners, World Health Organization (; at


Wilbur Smith (2008), Traffic & Transportation Policies and Strategies in Urban Areas in India, Ministry of Urban Development (; at


World Bank Transport Sector ( describes how and why countries can create more efficient and equitable transportation systems.


World Bank, Background Resource Materials on Transport and Poverty, World Bank (, updated occasionally.


World Health Organization Healthy Cities Project ( provides information on international efforts to create healthy cities.


Lloyd Wright (2007), Bus Rapid Transit Planning Guide, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (; at


Lloyd Wright (2009), Environmentally Sustainable Transport For Asian Cities: A Sourcebook, United Nations Centre for Regional Development (; at


Christopher Zegras and Todd Litman (1997), An Analysis of the Full Costs and Impacts of Transportation in Santiago de Chile, International Institute for Energy Conservation (, Santiago; at

This Encyclopedia is produced by the Victoria Transport Policy Institute to help improve understanding of Transportation Demand Management. It is an ongoing project. Please send us your comments and suggestions for improvement.




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